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Monday, June 16, 2014

Everything about your Australian Cattle Dog

Everything about your Australian Cattle Dog
 The Australian Cattle Dog is an extremely intelligent, active, and sturdy dog breed. Developed by Australian settlers to handle herds of cattle on expansive ranches, he's still used today as a herding dog. He thrives on having a job to do and on being part of all family activities. He is loyal and protective of his family, though wary of outsiders. Besides herding work, the Australian Cattle dog does well at canine sports, including agility, obedience, rally, flyball, and flying disc competitions.
  This über-rugged and masculine breed is owned by some of Hollywood's hottest, including Matthew McConaughey and Mel Gibson. The Australian Cattle Dog was bred from a mix between a Blue Merle Collie and an Australian Dingo to create a herding dog with outstanding stamina and athleticism. A loyal and loving pup, this breed makes a wonderful companion for an equally active owner or family.

Overview
  The Australian cattle dog is of moderate build, enabling it to combine great endurance with bursts of speed and the extreme agility necessary in controlling unruly cattle. It is sturdy and compact, slightly longer than it is tall. Its gait is supple and tireless, and it must be capable of quick and sudden movement. Its ability to stop quickly is aided by the rudderlike action of its tail.  Its weather-resistant coat consists of a short, dense undercoat and moderately short, straight outer coat of medium texture. 
  Smart, hardy, independent, stubborn, tenacious, energetic and untiring — these are all traits essential to a driver of headstrong cattle, and all traits of the Australian cattle dog. This dog must have a job to do or it will expend its efforts on unacceptable jobs of its own. Given challenging mental and hard physical exercise daily, it is among the most responsive and obedient of dogs, an exemplary partner in adventure. It tends to nip at the heels of running children.

Breed standards
AKC group: Herding
UKC group: Herding dog
Average lifespan: 12 - 15 years
Average size: 44 - 62 pounds
Coat appearance: Dense, straight, flat
Coloration: Blue healer and red healer
Hypoallergenic: No
Other identifiers: Strong, medium-sized body frame. Tail is never docked. Pricked and pointed ears. 
Possible alternations: At times, black face mask over one or both eyes is present.
Comparable Breeds: Border Collie, Cardigan Welsh Corgi
Highlights
  • The Australian Cattle Dog is extremely active, both physically and mentally. He needs a regular job or activity to keep him busy, tired, and out of trouble.
  • Nipping and biting is the Australian Cattle Dog's natural instinct. Proper training, socialization, and supervision help minimize this potentially dangerous characteristic.
  • The Australian Cattle Dog is a "shadow" dog; intensely devoted to his owner, he does not want to be separated from him or her.
  • The best way to help the Australian Cattle Dog get along with children and other pets is to raise him with them from a young age.
  • To get a healthy dog, never buy a puppy from an irresponsible breeder, puppy mill, or pet store. Look for a reputable breeder who tests her breeding dogs to make sure they're free of genetic diseases that they might pass onto the puppies, and that they have sound temperaments.

History
  Australian Cattle Dogs were earlier known by the breed names Queensland Blue Heelers and Australian Heelers. They are often still referred to as Australian or Blue Heelers. Their beginnings can be traced to the 1800s, when cattle herders that had emigrated from Britain to Australia found that the sheep herding dogs they had brought with them were not adjusting to the harsher environment of the outback.
   The Smithfield dogs, as they were called, had thick coats that had suited them well back in London, but that weighed too heavy on them in Australia. Ranchers complained as well that the Smithfields bit too hard and barked too much, making their cattle anxious and prone to lower weights. The need for a dog that could survive under harsh conditions in the rough tracts and manage the cattle without getting too rowdy or rough with the cows led to a long period of breed experimentation, beginning with a man named Timmins who crossed the Smithfield with the native Australian Dingo. It was not a successful pairing, as the resulting progeny was too aggressive, but it was the beginning of the recreation of the Dingo as a working companion.   More successful was Thomas Hall, of New South Wales, who crossed the Dingo with the Blue Smooth Highland Collie. The offspring proved mush more useful here, and came to be known as Hall's Heelers.
  Along the way, subsequent cattlemen bred other dog breeds into Hall's Heelers in order to strengthen the breed and improve upon it, most notably the Bull Terrier, which lent its tenacious nature. Brothers Harry and jack Bagust bred the Dalmatian with one of Hall's Heelers, which added an affection for human companions, and further on added the Black and Tan Kelpie to the line, for its working ability. It was at this point that the Australian Cattle Dog breed truly took shape.
  The first breed standard was spelled out in 1902 by breeder Robert Kaleski. The best results were used to further the breeding program, until the breed could be considered pure. It is from this line of pure Australian Heeler's that today's Cattle Dog can be traced. It is the addition of the Dalmatian that causes Australian cattle Dog puppies to be born white, but otherwise, the breed bears little resemblance to this “blood relative.”
  Heelers gained popularity in U.S. very slowly, finally receiving recognition from the American Kennel Club  in 1980. Since then, the Australian Cattle Dogs have shown great merit as a show dog.




Is this breed right for you?
  Couch potatoes look away now! This breed not only requires daily exercise, but also hours of rigorous activity on a constant basis. The Australian Cattle Dog can easily adapt to most environments but is best suited for open land and room to roam. Apartment dwellers might want to opt for a less-active breed, unless hours of daily physical activity can be arranged. This breed is very low maintenance in the grooming department and has little-known health issues. With this pup by your side, you'll have a longtime running partner you can depend on.

Temperament
  The Australian Cattle Dog is a loyal, brave, hardworking, herding breed. One of the most intelligent breeds, it is not the kind of dog to lie around the living room all day or live happily in the backyard with only a 15-minute walk. It needs much more exercise than that and something to occupy its mind daily or it will become bored, leading to serious behavior problems. It needs action in its life and will do best with a job. This alert dog is excellent in the obedience ring and will excel in agility and herding trials. Can be obedience trained to a very high level. Firm training starting when the dog is a puppy and a lot of daily leadership, along with daily mental and physical exercise will produce a wonderful and happy pet. Protective, it makes an excellent guard dog. It is absolutely loyal and obedient to its master. It is sometimes suspicious of people and dogs it doesn’t know. It can be very dog aggressive if allowed to be pack leader, for its dominance level is high. Teach your Australian Cattle Dog that you are alpha and you will not tolerate him fighting with other dogs. Well balanced Cattle dogs are good and trustworthy with children. Some will nip at people's heels in an attempt to herd them; an owner needs to tell the dog this is not acceptable behavior. If you are adopting a pet, avoid working lines, as these dogs may be too energetic and intense for home life. Australian Cattle Dogs are very easy to train. Problems can and WILL arise with meek owners and/or owners who do not provide the proper amount and type of exercise. This breed does best with a job to do. If you do not have time to extensively work with and exercise your dog, or do not fully understand canine instincts and their need to have leadership, this is not the breed for you.

Care
  Australian Cattle Dogs can survive under both cool and temperate climatic condition. They were bred especially for the sometimes harsh environment of the Australian outback. They can live in a secure shelter outdoors, but they also do well inside the house with the family. Ample physical and mental exercise, perhaps long sessions of walking or jogging, or specially designed agility exercises, such as Frisbee or course runs, will help the Heller to stay fit and to spend its excess energy. Grooming is easy enough, with the occasional combing and brushing to encourage hair turnover, along with weekly baths.
The importance pf obedience and intellectual challenges for keeping the Australian Cattle Dog fit cannot be stressed enough. A Heeler without a job will be frustrated and unhappy. They are unsuitable for living an apartment life, or living in an environment that restricts their movement.

 Health
  Australian Cattle Dogs have a lifespan of about 10 to 13 years. Some of the major health concerns include progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), canine hip dysplasia (CHD), elbow dysplasia, deafness, and Osteochondrosis Dissecans (OCD). Apart from these, some of the diseases that can be occasionally seen in them are lens luxation, cataract, con Willebrand's Disease (vWD), and Persistent Pupillary Membrane (PPM). Therefore, it is advisable to have regular tests on eyes, hips, elbows, and ears.

Exercise
  These animals have incredible stamina and will enjoy all the activity you can give them. Exercise is of paramount importance—without enough they can become bored and destructive. Exercise cannot simply be tossing a ball. While they will enjoy this ball play, their brains need to be stimulated daily. Does best with a job. They need to be taken on long daily walks. Makes an excellent jogging companion. Do not allow this dog to walk ahead of you on the walks. He needs to be beside or behind you to re-enforce the human is alpha.

Children and other pets
  The Australian Cattle Dog is good family dog, but he does best with children if he's raised with them and accepts them early on as members of his household. In such cases, he's very playful and protective. The breed's tendency to be mouthy — even to nip and bite — can be a problem with kids, however. He may want to herd them with sharp nips, or bite when youngsters play too roughly.
  An adult Australian Cattle Dog who has had little exposure to children will not know how to treat them and may be too rough. Some dogs are suspicious of children; because they don't act like adults, dogs sometimes perceive them as threatening. Most problems can be solved by carefully socializing the Australian Cattle Dog puppy to children, and by teaching him bite inhibition.
  As with every breed, you should always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's eating or sleeping or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog, no matter how friendly, should ever be left unsupervised with a child.
  The Australian Cattle Dog gets along with other dogs in his household, especially if he's been raised with them from puppyhood. However, because he is so devoted to one person in a family, there can be jealousy or squabbles between the Australian Cattle Dog and other dogs.
   Now, about cats and other small animals that the Australian Cattle Dog usually thinks of as prey: if he is raised with a cat or other animal from the time he's a puppy, he'll probably consider it a member of his houseshold and leave it alone. If not, he's likely to chase, catch, and even kill.


A dream day-in-the-life
  Running, hiking, herding and jogging would be an excellent warm-up to a perfect day for the active Australian Cattle Dog. If yours is a puppy, start training early. This smart breed loves to learn and does best adapting to a family with children if training begins early. Loving and loyal by nature, the Australian Cattle Dog is happy being with you as long as downtime is reserved only for bedtime.





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Everything about your Mastiff

Everything about your Mastiff
  One of the biggest dogs recognized by the American Kennel Club, the massive Mastiff loves being around people and is known to bond closely with his 'family.' A combination of grandeur and good nature as well as courage and docility, he was bred in England and used as a watchdog for more than two thousand years. The breed's short coat can be fawn, apricot or brindle.
   The Mastiff is one of the most ancient types of dog breeds. His ancestor, the molossus, was known 5,000 years ago. Then, he was a ferocious war dog, very different from the benevolent behemoth that he is today. He makes a fine companion for anyone who can accommodate his great size and doesn't mind a little drool slung here and there.
  The Mastiff is the classic gentle giant, loving but sometimes stubborn. His size alone is enough to deter troublemakers. At heart, he is a peaceful dog, but he is always protective of his family and will step in if danger threatens.
   ​For the uninitiated, a face-to-face encounter with these black-masked giants can be startling. Standing as high as 30 inches at the shoulder and outweighing many a full-grown man, Mastiffs make an immediate and lasting impression. The rectangular body is deep and thickly muscled, covered by a short double coat of fawn, apricot, or brindle-stripe. The head is massive, and a wrinkled forehead accentuates an alert, kindly expression.

Overview
  Among the largest and most-impressive breeds in the world, Mastiffs have other breeds beat in the size department. Other breeds may be taller and bigger, but in sheer mass, the Mastiff is as big as it gets. Very protective by nature, this breed has guard-dog instincts to protect, although its massive build is often intimidating enough to deter even the boldest trespasser. Easygoing and laid-back, Mastiffs make good family pets and love social atmospheres.


Highlights
  • Mastiffs need daily exercise, but take into account the age of the dog and the temperature. Mastiffs can overheat easily.
  • Without exercise and stimulation, Mastiffs can become bored and destructive.
  • The Mastiff is considered a breed with a short lifespan, but some Mastiffs have lived to 18 years of age. A dog is a lifelong commitment, and if you are drawn to the breed because of the chance of a short lifespan, you may want to reassess your choice.
  • Mastiffs drool and are prone to gassiness, but other than that they are fairly clean. If their drool would bother you in any way, this may not be a breed for you.
  • Mastiffs are not the best choice for families with very young children or frail senior citizens. A Mastiff can easily knock down a child or adult who's unsteady.
  • Mastiffs can do quite well in apartments and homes with small yards if they are exercised properly, but they are not really recommended for smaller dwellings because of their size. The ideal living environment for a Mastiff is a house with a large yard.
  • Mastiffs can have strong protection instincts and need to be properly socialized with both people and animals. If they are not properly socialized they can become fearful of new situations and shy of strangers, which could lead to biting.
  • Socializing your Mastiff to other animals will help ensure that your Mastiff has a happy, healthy life. If Mastiffs are not properly trained and socialized they may develop aggression toward other animals, and their size and strength makes them dangerous if they don't know how to interact with them.
  • Mastiffs have an easy-care coat, but they shed heavily.
  • When Mastiffs reach adulthood and overcome their clumsiness and energy, they are wonderful companions who are calm, quiet, well mannered, and self-assured. They make excellent watchdogs, although they tend to not bark as much as other breeds.
  • Mastiffs need training so they can be easily managed in spite of their size. Mastiffs are not recommended for new or timid owners. They respond best to positive reinforcement, especially if it involves lots of hugs and praise.
  • Mastiffs snore, snort, and grunt — loudly.
  • Mastiffs tend to be lazy and need daily exercise to keep from gaining too much weight.
  • All dogs thrive when they are with their family in the house, and the Mastiff is no exception. He should sleep and live in the house, not in the yard. A Mastiff who is tied up in a yard away from his family will pine away or become destructive.
  • To get a healthy dog, never buy a puppy from an irresponsible breeder, puppy mill, or pet store. Look for a reputable breeder who tests her breeding dogs to make sure they're free of genetic diseases that they might pass onto the puppies, and that they have sound temperaments.
History
  The ancestors of the Mastiff probably originated in the mountains of Central Asia several thousand years ago. The name Mastiff probably comes from the Latin, either “massivus,” meaning huge, or “mastinus,” meaning house dog. The early Mastiffs were called molossers and were used for hunting, guarding and fighting. From Tibet or northern India they accompanied traders and nomads throughout the world, making their way to the Middle East, the Mediterranean, China and Russia. Ancient Egyptians depicted massive dogs on the walls of the pyramids, and in Greek mythology the three-headed canine guardian of the underworld is a mastiff-type dog. Greeks, Romans and other peoples all used mastiffs in battle.

   In medieval times, Mastiffs patrolled estates at night, ever on the alert for poachers or other intruders. Through the 16th century they were still used as war dogs in Europe. One famous line of English Mastiffs descends from a female Mastiff belonging to Sir Piers Legh of Lyme Hall, who was injured at the battle of Agincourt in France in 1415. She guarded him until he could be removed from the field and cared for and was later returned to his estate in England. The Lyme Hall line of Mastiffs lasted into the 20th century.

   Mastiffs as we know them today began to be developed in England in 1835. That was the same year that dogfighting was outlawed, making it a turning point in the breed’s temperament. If Mastiffs were to survive, they needed to have a more peaceful nature. The breed continued developing through the end of the 19th century, but World War I, with its food shortages, almost led to the demise of the Mastiff. The same thing happened during World War II. Fortunately, the breed was rebuilt and is moderately popular today.

The American Kennel Club recognized the Mastiff in 1885. The Mastiff ranks 28th in AKC registrations, up from 39th in 2000, showing a steady increase in popularity.

List of Mastiff breeds
Breed standards
AKC group: Working
UKC group: Guardian dog
Average lifespan: 8 - 12 years
Average size: 120 - 230 pounds
Coat appearance: Short, sleek, close
Coloration: Silver fawn, dark fawn, brindle and apricot
Hypoallergenic: No
Other identifiers: Massive and powerful body frame and head. Black face mask and wrinkled forehead.
Possible alterations: None
Comparable Breeds: Bullmastiff, Great Dane

What are they like?
  ​It’s been a long time since Mastiffs have been employed as warriors or hunters. Modern Mastiffs are steady, sweet-tempered, patient family companions and guardians who take best to gentle training. Eternally loyal, Mastiffs are protective of their loved ones, and their natural wariness of strangers makes it essential that they be trained and socialized in early puppyhood. They are droolers and hearty eaters, and acquiring a dog of such colossal size and strength is a weighty commitment.




Temperament
  The Mastiff is a very massive, powerful, muscular dog. Dominance levels vary, even within the same litter, but it is often called a gentle giant. A born guard dog, the Mastiff rarely barks, but it is in its nature to defend its territory and family, and is more a silent guard rather than a barker. When an intruder is caught the dog is more likely to hold them at bay, either by trapping them in a corner or lying on top of them rather than an all-out attack. You do not need to train your Mastiff to guard. No matter how friendly it is, if it senses danger it will naturally guard on its own unless the owners are there to tell it otherwise. Self-confident and watchful, these dogs are patient and considered excellent with children. Intelligent, calm, even-tempered and docile, this breed is very large and heavy. They respond well to firm, but gentle, patient training. They love to please and need a lot of human leadership. Socialize them well to prevent them from becoming aloof with strangers. Owners need to be firm, calm, consistent, confident with an air of natural authority to communicate to the Mastiff that dominance is unwanted. If socialized with proper leadership it will get along well with other dogs. The Mastiff tends to drool, wheeze and snore loudly. It can be somewhat difficult to train. The objective in training this dog is to achieve pack leader status. It is a natural instinct for a dog to have an order in its pack. When we humans live with dogs, we become their pack. The entire pack cooperates under a single leader. Lines are clearly defined and rules are set. Because a dog communicates his displeasure with growling and eventually biting, all other humans MUST be higher up in the order than the dog. The humans must be the ones making the decisions, not the dogs. That is the only way your relationship with your dog can be a complete success.



Health Problems
Beware of hip dysplasia. As these dogs are prone to bloat, feed two or three small meals a day, instead of one large one. Also prone to CHD, gastric torsion, ectropion, PPM, vaginal hyperplasia, elbow dysplasia and PRA. Occasionally seen is cardiomyopathy.



Is this breed right for you?
  With big dogs come big responsibilities. Mastiff owners must be financially prepared to take on the equally massive bills required to raise this extra-large breed. Neat freaks may want to steer clear of this breed as their huge paws track in dirt by the mounds, and they are known to slobber excessively. Due to its large size, you can bet this breed has an appetite, meaning more yard cleanup than for an average dog. If your life motto is "bigger is better," you can't go wrong with a Mastiff. Loving, sweet and instinctively protective, this breed makes a great family pet and guard dog. Just be very aware of this huge breed around small children. Room to roam is ideal for a gentle giant like the Mastiff; however, this pup tends to adapt well to a smaller household with proper exercise.
Exercise
  Mastiffs are inclined to be lazy but they will keep fitter and happier if given regular exercise. Like all dogs, the American Mastiff should be taken on daily regular walks to help release its mental and physical energy. It's in a dog’s nature to walk. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog's mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. They should always be leashed in public.Mastiffs are inclined to be lazy but they will keep fitter and happier if given regular exercise. Like all dogs, the American Mastiff should be taken on daily regular walks to help release its mental and physical energy. It's in a dog’s nature to walk. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog's mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. They should always be leashed in public.

Grooming
  The Mastiff’s short coat is easy to care for. Brush it with a rubber curry brush at least weekly -daily, if you want. The brush removes dead hairs that would otherwise end up on your floor, furniture and clothing.
  Mastiffs shed moderately to heavily. Some dogs shed heavily only during spring and fall shedding seasons, while others consistently shed throughout the year. The more you brush, the less hair you’ll have flying around.
  To keep your Mastiff’s facial wrinkles clean and infection-free, wipe them out as needed using a damp cloth or a baby wipe. Then dry them thoroughly. Moisture left behind can create the perfect environment for bacterial growth.
  Bathe your Mastiff only when he’s dirty. If you’re lucky, that won’t be very often. But if you want to bathe him every week, you can. Just use a gentle shampoo made for dogs.
  The rest is basic care. Trim his nails as needed, usually every week or two, and brush his teeth with a vet-approved pet toothpaste for good overall health and fresh breath.

Children and other pets
  Mastiffs love children. That said, they are large, active dogs and can accidentally knock a toddler down with a swipe of the tail. They're best suited to homes with older children. Bear in mind as well that Mastiffs are not ponies, and children cannot ride them. Your Mastiff can be injured if children try to ride him.
  Always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's sleeping or eating or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog should ever be left unsupervised with a child.
  In general, Mastiffs will tolerate other dogs and cats, especially if they've been raised with them. If you're adding a second adult Mastiff to your family, you may want to consider getting one of the opposite sex to avoid any arguments over who's top dog.

Did You Know?
The Mastiff is the classic gentle giant, loving but sometimes stubborn. His size alone is enough to deter troublemakers. At heart, he is a peaceful dog, but he is always protective of his family and will step in if danger threatens.

A dream day in the life
  With a gentle heart and a calm disposition, Mastiffs are simply happy just being with their human families. A very loyal breed, their main purpose is to protect their caretakers, but if given the chance, Mastiffs will take a short break from standing guard for cuddles and snuggles. A moderately athletic breed, the large pooch will gladly join you on daily walks and playtime at the park.

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Thursday, June 5, 2014

Dogs that love summer

Dogs that love summer
  It's essential to keep pets safe as temperatures leap up, whether via a cool kiddie pool or chilly spray bottle!
  Dogs with thick, double coats are more vulnerable to overheating. So are breeds with short noses, like Bulldogs or Pugs, since they can't pant as well to cool themselves off. If you want a heat-sensitive breed, the dog will need to stay indoors with you on warm or humid days, and you'll need to be extra cautious about exercising your dog in the heat.
  Although most breeds can live in hot climates with the proper care, some breeds do much better in hot weather. Dogs living in areas known for hot temperates need special care because they cannot handle the temperature extremes the way people can. When you adopt a dog, consider his outdoor environment and how much time he will be spending outdoors. When selecting a breed for hot climates, consider the following:
  • Size
  • Hair coat 
  • Facial conformation
  Panting is one method that dogs use to cool off. Breeds with pushed in noses and short faces such as English Bulldogs, pugs, Pekingese and boxers, tend to have a more difficult time in a hot climate.
  Giant dog breeds such as Newfoundlands and St. Bernard’s cannot handle exercise in hot weather as well as smaller dogs can. They are prone to sluggishness and obesity.


  If you’re looking for a dog that enjoys hot weather, consider dogs that come from high-temp locales. Dogs originating from warmer, drier climates, like the Basenji, are best suited for summer weather. This hard-working dog originated in central Africa and has hot-weather hunting in its blood, and even today it is used by Pygmy tribes to take down lions. As a bonus, the Basenji naturally does not bark and sheds little.



  That small, short-haired dogs, such as the Mini Pin, can handle the heat better than their large, heavily furred counterparts. Miniature Pinschers have a short, smooth coat and no undercoat, which helps them dissipate heat.



  Long, lean and known for speed, the Greyhound is another ancient breed with history in Egypt. The dog’s smooth, low-maintenance coat helps in keeping it from overheating. Greyhounds are slim and capable of exercise when the weather is hot.

  Smaller dogs can tolerate heat well. If you’re into small dogs, Chihuahuas have a short coat and are typically pretty resilient. Of note, small dogs with flat faces, such as Pugs or Bulldogs, do not do well in the heat.

  The Pharaoh Hound happily soaks up the sun rays. This slender, athletic canine has a fuss-free short coat and loves to play outdoors. One of the oldest dog breeds, the Pharaoh Hound originated in Egypt but is now the national dog for Malta, bred for hunting rabbits.

  The terriers can do well in the heat. The Cairn Terrier is a rugged pup with a weather-resistant coat that protects it in hot- and cold-weather conditions. This spunky canine lives for outdoor activity and craves physical and mental stimulation, particularly hunting-type games.

Also other dogs that  do well in hot weather are:
Hot-weather tips for dogs
  Though some dog breeds tolerate or even thrive in higher temperatures, it's important to providing ample opportunity for your pawed pal to cool off. During hot summer months, dogs should have multiple clean-water sources and plenty of shade. This is particularly true if you have a pet that doesn’t do well in the heat, especially flat-nosed dog breeds, such as the Pug and Bulldog. These breeds can easily overheat due to their facial structure, which impedes efficient panting and cooling off. Regardless of breed, keep a close eye out for signs of heat exhaustion.
 Always make sure that his dog water bowl is filled at all times, especially during hot weather.

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Which are the more intelligent dogs?

Which are the more intelligent dogs?
   Dog intelligence, like human intelligence, comes in various forms. And although the best in any breed can be nurtured by owners willing to put in the time and effort, there are fixed realities when it comes to your animal's inherent qualities.
  If it's bred to hunt, herd, or retrieve, the dog is more likely to be quick on its feet, eager to work, to move, and to please you. It will learn faster. If it's bred to be a livestock guard dog or a scent hound, it may seem distracted and just a bit dense. The key is knowing what your pooch is built for and how to motivate him.
  But keep in mind that the smartest dogs often don't make the best pets. Your job is to find a breed that suits your lifestyle and to focus on bringing out the best in your dog.

The Intelligence of Dogs is a book on dog intelligence by Stanley Coren, a professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.
  Coren defines three aspects of dog intelligence in the book: 
  • Instinctive intelligence refers to a dog's ability to perform the tasks it was bred for, such as herding, pointing, fetching, guarding, or supplying companionship. 
  • Adaptive intelligence refers to a dog's ability to solve problems on its own. 
  • Working and obedience intelligence refers to a dog's ability to learn from humans. 
  When Coren's list of breed intelligence first came out there was much media attention and commentary both pro and con. However over the years the ranking of breeds and the methodology used have come to be accepted as a valid description of the differences among dog breeds in terms of the trainability aspect of dog intelligence. In addition, measurements of canine intelligence using other methods have confirmed the general pattern of these rankings including a new study using owner ratings to rank dog trainability and intelligence.

  The Australian Cattle Dog is a very active breed. A working dog that is traditionally occupied with controlling and herding cattle, its qualities are exceptional intelligence, alertness, resourcefulness, and a fiercely protective loyalty over its property and people. They are agile, strong, active dogs, both physically and mentally, which revel in new experiences. The flip side is that they bore easily and will unintentionally find trouble while looking for activities to occupy themselves with. They need to be exercised on a regular basis, both mentally and physically. The Cattle Dog is very organized; many are known for putting their own toys away after playing.

  They are freethinking, resourceful, and very protective of their property, including people!



  Another herding dog, the Rottweiler began in Germany as a true work companion. They are still primarily used for work as guard dogs and as police dogs. They are well known for their stoicism, keen perception, courage, and unflagging loyalty. 
 Often due to inadequate training and human behavior with them, they are aggressive, but it does not mean that they are not intelligent. Sometimes these dogs are working in the police, because they have strong jaw and deep bites. In ancient times they were used to carry heavy items. If you are looking for a dog to protect you or your property, this dog will for you.

  The Papillon (from the French word for butterfly), also called the Continental Toy Spaniel, is a breed of dog of the Spaniel type. One of the oldest of the toy spaniels, it derives its name from its characteristic butterfly-like look of the long and fringed hair on the ears. A Papillon with dropped ears is called a Phalène.
  This deceptively cute, butterfly-eared dog is smarter, tougher, and stronger than it appears . Often described as big dogs in little bodies, they have the athletic stamina to keep up on long walks, and the bravura of a canine ten times its size. The Papillon is a true companion and watchdog.  
  Does this dog scare you at all?  Well it should, because Papillons are actually a lot tougher than they look!  Some would characterize Papillons as a little moody and aggressive, but they are simply very possessive of their masters and “home turf”.  It may surprise some that the Papillon is considered one of the most affectionate dogs.  Another very intelligent dog, and very easy to train. Let's not forget they can be litter trained, a big plus.
  This breed is proof that small and cute puppy can be very smart. These dogs have always been symbols of elegance. They are well trained and eager to work. These dogs often live in nursing homes as therapy dogs. They are obedient and very friendly.

Labrador Retriever
  The Lab, as it is affectionately called, is the most popular breed chosen by families. Another member of the working class of dogs, the Lab is best known for its intelligence, affection, patience, and gentility, making them perfect companions for households with kids. They are easily trained, and, in fact, are one of the top dogs chosen for search and rescue, assisting the disabled, and police work. They are also known to self train, observing behaviors in humans and repeating them - a great asset in emergency situations.
  This is not only one of the most popular breeds in the world, but also one of the smartest. The breed was trained to hunt waterfowls. Now these dogs in police work and is used to search for bombs and drugs. Dogs, which is able to do this, certainly are intelligent. Many of these dogs can be trained to help the disabled. Also this dog is very friendly, loving and obedient.

  Another herding dog, the Shetland takes this ability into the home, showing the same commitment and protectiveness over its human "herd" as the farm raised version does.They are small to medium dogs, and come in a variety of colors, such as sable, tri-color, and blue merle.  Highly intelligent, the Sheltie handles life with great efficiency and diligence, learning new commands with little repetition, and making sure that all of the family is safe, sound, and in place. They show great devotion to their families, and are happy to live just about anywhere. In fact, the Sheltie very much craves human companionship. 
  Many Shetland owners swear that their dog has nearly human intelligence!

  The Doberman Pinscher (alternatively spelled Dobermann in many countries) or simply Doberman, is a breed of domestic dog originally developed around 1890 by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann.In many countries, Doberman Pinschers are one of the most recognizable breeds, in part because of their actual roles in society, and in part because of media attention. Although they are considered to be working dogs, Doberman Pinschers are often stereotyped as being ferocious and aggressive. As a personal protection dog, the Doberman was originally bred for these traits: it had to be large and intimidating, fearless, and willing to defend its owner, but sufficiently obedient and restrained to only do so on command.
  Due to an inborn fearlessness and deep stamina, the Doberman is one of the most popular of guard dogs. Smart and assertive, they can easily be trained for dominance or docility. Because of their past as war and police dogs, they may appear fearsome, but they are actually quite gentle. Their loyalty and acuity make Doberman's great additions to the family.

Golden Retriever
  The Golden Retriever is a large-sized breed of dog. They were bred as gundogs to retrieve shot waterfowl such as ducks and upland game birds during hunting and shooting parties, and were named retriever because of their ability to retrieve shot game undamaged. Golden   Retrievers have an instinctive love of water, and are easy to train to basic or advanced obedience standards. 
  The Golden Retriever personifies everything we love about dogs-loyal, loving, patient, great with children and eager to please.  With such great intelligence, it’s no wonder that Golden Retrievers excel in obedience competitions and at performing tricks.
  A very affectionate and popular breed, the Golden Retriever is highly regarded for its intelligence. They can learn well over 200 commands, making them indispensable companions, both in the home and in the workplace. Loyal, loving, and patient, with a willingness to please and a love of learning, this is a fabulous companion pet to bring into your family.
  The temperament of the Golden Retriever is a hallmark of the breed, and is described in the standard as "kindly, friendly and confident”.

German Shepherds
  German Shepherds are extremely intelligent, courageous, and have a very strong protective instinct .  As long as they are trained in obedience from an early age by a loving but firm hand, they can be great family dogs, and excellent with children.  Because of their intelligence, a German Shepherd needs a purpose or job in life to be truly happy. This intelligence, coupled with their courageous nature make German Shepherds excellent police and search dogs.   These dog's mind is used to help people. German Shepherds can do what people do not, for example finding drugs. They are also great protection.    Beyond the fact that these dogs are useful in people's lives, and they are very friendly and devoted to their family. They are easy to train and teach innumerable teams. For his master's German Shepherd can do anything.

 Poodle
  Yes, many people are surprised, but the poodle is in the list.  The standard Poodle is highly intelligent and one of the easiest breeds to train.  They love to be around people, and really hate to be left alone.   Even with the frou-frou hairdos, Poodles are sometimes made to endure and can be quite effective as guard dogs, especially the standard sized Poodles. In fact, the "poodle clip," was created specifically for the working Poodle, so that it could swim more effectively, while still having fur to protect its organs as it went about the business of hunting and retrieving. The Poodle excels at training and obedience, and also loves creative play time. This is what made them so popular as circus performers. But, this can be a drawback as well. If left alone to boredom, Poodles can be creative about finding ways to amuse themselves, sometimes finding trouble along the way.  
  Overall, Poodles are a sensitive, pleasant and happy breed.

Border Collie
  Like many intelligent breeds, the Border Collie needs a job to do.  If they don’t have a purpose in life or some kind of job, they will not be happy.  Border Collies should  definitely not be left at home alone all day, and if they are, they can become quite destructive. They need constant companionship, praise, and extensive exercise.  So if you work and live in the city, a Border Collie probably isn’t the dog for you!  Because of their legendary intelligence, Border Collies set the standard in competitions for such skills as agility, obedience, and of course, sheepdog trials.  In January 2011, a Border Collie was reported to have learned 1,022 words, and acts consequently to human citation of those words.
  The dog must do something good that he would feel happy. This dog has been used for livestock grazing, and nowadays he want a lot of to physically move.  The new command he learns incredibly fast. This dog is perfect for dog sports.
  They have an intense connection with humans, making them ideal work and home companions. However, keep this in mind: Border Collies invariably will not do well unless they are with people who are as high energy as they are; they do best with humans who can participate in dog sports with them. Also, because of their background as herding dogs, they may be frustrated by small children, as their inability to herd the children as they deem fit is confounded. For the right human, the Border Collie is well behaved, exceptionally good at learning, and a true-blue companion.

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Wednesday, May 28, 2014

What Dog Breeds Have Blue Eyes?

What Dog Breeds Have Blue Eyes?
  Genetically, there are four ways in which a dog can have blue eyes. Three of these are linked with pigment loss in the coat.
  The most common way is as a side effect of the merle gene. Merle dilutes random parts of the pigment, including the eyes and nose. This sort of dilution causes blue colour in the iris. Because of the random pigment loss, often merle dogs have "butterfly" noses and blue, wall or split eyes. Wall eyes are when a dog has one blue eye and one brown or amber eye, and a split eye has some blue in it and the rest is brown or amber. Split eyes vary from mostly blue to mostly brown or amber. 
  The more dilution there is in the coat of a merle , the more likely they are to have blue eyes or a butterfly nose. A heavily merled dog  is unlikely to have either of these traits. Double  merles are highly likely to have blue eyes and a completely or almost completely pink nose because of the combination of merle dilution and large amounts of white around the face .
  The second way in which blue eyes can occur is when a dog has large amounts of white around its eyes. White areas on the coat are where the cells are unable to produce any pigment, so if these areas spread to the face then there may be pigment loss in the eyes and on the nose, making the nose pink and the eyes blue. This only tends to occur on very high-white dogs with the extreme spotting pattern, such as white Boxers, and even then is fairly unusual.
  The third way is when a dog is affected by the C series. The C series is albino. There are no confirmed cases of true albinism in dogs, however "white" Dobermanns have a very light coat, blue eyes and a fully pink nose, and this is thought to be a form of albinism.
  Lastly, blue eyes can be inherited as a completely separate gene, unaffected by coat colour. This gene is, however, rare. It is rumoured to occur occasionally in the Border Collie, but mainly it's seen in the Siberian Husky. Huskies can have one or both blue eyes, regardless of their main coat colour, ranging in shade from almost white to sky blue. This is particularly striking when seen on black dogs.
  
Therefore, any breed of dog can be born with blue eyes in spite of its breed and coat color. Even if the puppy's parents do not have blue eyes, a puppy can have it. Of course, this is a very rare case.
  Let's talk more about those dogs that mostly may have blue eyes regardless of the color of their coat.


Siberian Husky. Sledge dog breed is considered one of the oldest dog breeds. These dogs can be several colors, from black to white. Usually white are muzzle and belly. Eyes are blue, brown, amber color. The dogs may have different eyes - for example one blue and one brown. At present, very popular with dogs Sky-blue eyes. This is a very strong dogs that can survive in extreme cold. In terms of the character of these dogs can distinguish three features - a energetic, playful and friendly dog. These dogs love human company and do not like to be alone. They are not suitable for protection. Huskies rarely bark, but sometimes screaming just for fun. For these dogs require strenuous physical exercise, about 80-100 minutes. However, these dogs are prone to escape, so better to let go of their fenced area.



Australian Shepherd. This breed name may be misleading, because these dogs are descended not from Australia as it may seem, but they are from United States. In ancient times, these dogs are cared for very large flocks of sheep. It is a medium-sized dogs. Their fur can be black, blue marble, red marble, brown tri-color, black and white. Their coat is with spots and star on the head. Australian Shepherd eyes are amber and brown, blue and azure. One of the finest Australian Shepherd properties are big desire to please their owners, so these dogs are fast learners and great friends. These dogs are good guard dogs. They are wary of strangers, but not fearful. They are noisy - lots of bark and howl. This breed is affectionate and playful, but without sacrificing the basic working instinct. They need a big physical exercise, about 80-100 minutes. They are not enough for walking, but be free and jogging.


Dalmatians
  Blue-eyed Dalmatians are thought to have a greater incidence of deafness than brown-eyed Dalmatians, although a mechanism of association between the two characteristics has yet to be conclusively established. Some kennel clubs discourage the use of blue-eyed dogs in breeding programs.





  Some people think that the blue eyes come from a Husky ancestor, but that is not true. The blue eye color always appears in the Border collie. Border Collies with 2 eye colors was once considered useful, or desirable for working Border Collies. Blue eyes are often called glass eyes, or watch eyes.If a Border collie has a white head and blue eyes, it would very likely become deaf.




Shetland Sheepdogs
  Note that many of these dogs are blue eyed because of the dominant merle coat colour gene, which may be connected to deafness. The blue-eyed factor in Siberians is NOT connected with deafness, unlike some of the other breeds in which blue eyes may occur. Deaf Siberians are very, very rare. The Merle gene is actually a semi-lethal dominant: dogs with one dose of Merle show the effects of the gene - scattered patches of missing pigment - including on the iris of the eye. They will also show a structural defect of the iris called 'iris coloboma'. Dogs with two doses of the merle gene are frequently deaf and seem to have otherwise reduced vigor. 
  It is important to add that the blue eye colouring is a recessive gene existing in almost all breeds. In other words, any dog can have blue eyes regardless of its breed and coat colour. A puppy can be born with blue eyes even though its parents do not have it. This is a rare instance though. Moreover, in some breeds blue eyes are considered a disqualifying fault .
  Some dog breeds such as Weimaraners have blue eyes as puppies. As they grow up, the eye colour change.
 
However, blue eye coloring is a recessive gene in most breeds. Even if the breed is not known for it, and the parents do not have it, a puppy can still be produces with one or both eyes blue. This means that ANY breed can throw a blue eyed pup in a very rare instance. Health concerns associated with blue eyed dogs are cateracts and deafness, so be sure you get your puppy from a reputable breeder.

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