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Showing posts with label black dog. Show all posts
Showing posts with label black dog. Show all posts

Thursday, December 28, 2017

Everything about your Black Russian Terrier

Everything about your Black Russian Terrier
  These majestic black beauties are highly intelligent, confident guard dogs who aren’t actually true terriers. Relatively new and still a rare dog breed, Black Russian Terriers are working dogs who can protect a home or business, play with the family’s children, and excel in agility and obedience competition. Known as the “Black Pearls of Russia,” Blackies are people-oriented and want to be close to the action at all times. They tend to be a bit aloof around strangers, including dogs they don’t know, but they’re devoted to their families — and they don’t bark or shed much. They have large bones and well-developed muscles, creating a vibrant, flowing impression.

Overview
  Also known as Stalin’s dog or Sobaka Stalina, the Black Russian Terrier is a low-maintenance and hard working dog. Developed by the post World War II Soviet Union, the Black Russian Terrier or BRT, is not a true terrier, and is instead categorized as a working dog.
  The BRT is a fairly large dog and has a powerfully built body. Both its forelegs and hindquarters are well-boned and muscular, and end in large, padded feet. The BRT’s head is fairly large and block shaped and is equipped with a powerful set of teeth that meet in a scissor bite. The BRT’s body is covered in a thick double coat. The outer-coat is coarse and wiry while the thick undercoat is soft to the touch. The BRTs coat is black and sometimes has a few stray grey hairs. 
  Brown or white markings are considered to be a fault.
  BRTs are extremely intelligent and self-assured dogs. Bred primarily as guard dogs, they have extremely strong protective instincts and are devoted to their owners. Their strong personalities do however require owners with a thorough understanding of dog psychology and leadership.

Highlights
  • Blackies need a job. They were bred for it and will be unhappy without one. Their job as your companion could be competing in agility, obedience, Schutzhund, or various canine sports.
  • Black Russian Terriers need at least 30 minutes of exercise a day. They are intelligent and powerful, and exercise provides a needed outlet. A Black Russian can manage in an apartment with sufficient outdoor exercise. A fenced yard is best for the Blackie living in a house.
  • Blackies enjoy the company of their families and prefer to stick close to their human pack. They don't do well stuck in the backyard by themselves.
  • The sometimes stubborn Blackie needs firm training as soon as you get him home so that he won't try to establish himself as the leader of the pack.
  • Blackies are by nature aloof with people they don't know, and unless they have regular exposure to lots of different people — ideally beginning in puppyhood — they can become overly protective of you around strangers. This may lead to biting out of fear and aggression. Give your Blackie lots of contact with friends, family, neighbors, and even strangers to help him polish his social skills.
Other Quick Facts

  • The Black Russian Terrier’s coat is slightly to moderately wavy. The hair on the head falls over the eyes and on the face forms a mustache and beard. The coat is trimmed to achieve the dog’s distinctive look.
  • Basic black is this breed’s fashion statement. His double coat - which can be one and a half to six inches long - comes only in black or black with a few gray hairs scattered throughout.
Breed standards
AKC group: Working
UKC group: Guardian Dog
Average lifespan: 10-14 years
Average size: 80–130 pounds
Coat appearance: Rough and thick, slightly waved
Coloration: black coats, but a sprinkling of gray hair
Hypoallergenic: No
Best Suited For: Families with children, active single, houses with yards, farms and rural areas
Temperament: Energetic, confident, brave, hardy
Comparable Breeds: Bouvier des Flandres, Giant Schnauzer

History 
  This dog is a Cold War creation, developed in Moscow after World War II for military and police work. His breeders started with a Giant Schnauzer and crossed him with other breeds that included the Airedale, Rottweiler, and the Moscow Retriever. The result was a large black dog with a protective temperament and a healthy dose of suspicion toward strangers.
  Less than two decades ago, the BRT was seen only in small numbers at European and Scandinavian dog shows, but in 2004 he was recognized by the American Kennel Club as its 151st breed. Today the Black Russian Terrier ranks 135th among the breeds registered by the AKC.



Personality
  Black Russian Terriers are truly man's best friend. They thrive on human interaction and have such a strong desire to be with their family that they will follow their people from room to room, and when left alone, will wait longingly by doors or windows until they are happily reunited with the ones they love. This breed adores children – especially female Black Russians. They are patient with small children who want to climb on them and are big enough to keep up with bigger kids' outdoor games. They have bee known to sleep in kids' rooms or outside their bedroom doors as a guardian and protector.

Health
  The Black Russian Terrier, which has an average lifespan of 10 to 14 years, is prone to minor health issues such as elbow dysplasia and major problems like canine hip dysplasia (CHD). The breed may also suffer from progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) and dwarfism. To identify some of these issues, a veterinarian may recommend hip, elbow, and eye exams for the dog

Care
  The Black Russian Terrier, because of its breeding as a working dog, has a very strong "work ethic", and needs a job to do in order to be happy. Early training is a must and they are very responsive to firm, consistent training, excelling at Obedience competitions. They also perform well in other dog sports, such as Agility, and Schutzhund training. They have a low-shedding coat, and need grooming several times a week. Dogs who compete in conformation need to be groomed a minimum of every three weeks to keep the coat in show condition. The Black Russian Terrier needs lots of exercise, and may become hyperactive and destructive if it does not have a chance to burn off its energy..

Living Conditions
  The Black Russian Terrier will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. They are relatively inactive indoors and no matter how big your yard is they will be sitting at your front door waiting to come in. They love to live very close to their owner. They will follow you from one room to the other. Kept in a garden they will follow you from window to window and wait for you at the door. They need very close human contact. This breed does not do well living in a kennel; they must have close human contact to be happy.

Training
  Black Russian Terriers are extremely intelligent and eager to please and are fairly easy to train. They do however have strong personalities and should be handled with a loving but firm hand from an early age. BRT puppies are inquisitive and playful and some adults too display this extreme curiosity. Black Russian Terriers often excel at various obedience competitions and dog sports such as agility and Schutzhund training.

Activity Requirements
  Black Russian Terriers, despite their larger size, can do well living in an apartment. They don't need an excessive amount of vigorous running time per day, but do need several walks. If left alone in a yard, Black Russian will quickly get bored and want to come inside. Outside activities should always involve interaction with kids or people in order to keep this breed interested.

Grooming
  Regular grooming is essential for the Black Russian Terrier’s handsome good looks. Expect to bathe your dog every two to three months. The wiry coat should be brushed twice a week to prevent tangles.
The rest is basic care. Nails should be trimmed once a month and ears checked every week. Regular tooth brushing with a soft toothbrush and doggie toothpaste keeps the teeth and gums healthy.
  Because the Black Russian Terrier is not a common breed, it is likely some professional groomers will not know exactly how to groom him, especially when it comes to hand stripping. An experienced breeder is probably the best resource for learning how to groom the breed.
  It is important to begin grooming the Black Russian Terrier when he is very young. An early introduction teaches this independent dog that grooming is a normal part of his life and to patiently accept the grooming process. 

Children And Other Pets
  Despite their impressive size, Blackies are great with children and will protect them. Females seem more willing to play with children than the males, but both sexes treat children with whom they are raised with gentleness and respect. Don't forget, however, that Blackies are large and active companions, and extremely young children may be accidentally knocked over or injured by a playful and energetic dog of this size. Use caution with very young children.
  Blackies who have not been exposed to children from puppyhood may not be as tolerant-something to consider if you're looking to add an older or rescue dog to your household.
  Either way, you should always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's eating or sleeping or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog, no matter how friendly, should ever be left unsupervised with a child.
  Make sure your Blackie is well socialized as a puppy and adult so that he doesn't become overprotective of his family and property.
  Male Black Russians don't do well with other dominant dogs. Many of them aren't suited to dog parks for this reason. At home, they do best with other canine companions who were already established in the house. They will be fine with nondominant or small dogs, as well as cats, horses, rabbits, and other pets.

Is the Black Russian Terrier the Right Breed for you?
Moderate Maintenance: Regular grooming is required to keep its fur in good shape. Professional trimming or stripping needed.
Minimal Shedding: Recommended for owners who do not want to deal with hair in their cars and homes.
Moderately Easy Training: The Black Russian Terrier is average when it comes to training. Results will come gradually.
Fairly Active: It will need regular exercise to maintain its fitness. Trips to the dog park are a great idea.
Not Good for New Owners: This breed is best for those who have previous experience with dog ownership.
Good with Kids: This is a suitable breed for kids and is known to be playful, energetic, and affectionate around them.

Did You Know?
Despite the word Terrier in his name, the Black Russian Terrier is a member of the American Kennel Club’s Working Group.
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Thursday, April 20, 2017

Everything about your Manchester Terrier

Everything about your Manchester Terrier
   The Manchester Terrier is quite an old breed that was developed for the purpose of hunting and killing rats, rabbits and other rodents in urban Great Britain. Named after the city of Manchester in northwestern England, this breed has also been referred to as the English Gentleman’s Terrier and the Gentleman’s Terrier. The Manchester Terrier is a direct descendant and very close relative of the old Black and Tan Terrier and shares many of its physical and mental attributes, although the Black and Tan was a heavier, coarser dog with shorter legs. The Manchester is a leaner, more athletic animal, due to outcrosses with Whippets during the early development of the breed. 

Overview

  The oldest-known terrier, the Manchester Terrier was bred in England to hunt rats. The best vermin-hunting breed, the Manchester Terrier is extremely fast. Available in both standard and toy varieties, both are considered companion dogs with the same personality traits. Unfortunately, the popularity of the Manchester Terrier has gone down in recent years.

Highlights
  • Life expectancy can be up to 15 years.
  • Manchesters can become obese if overfed and under-exercised.
  • You can find them in two sizes: small and smaller.
  • They excel at sports such as agility, obedience, and rally.
  • They are great watchdogs and will bark enthusiastically if not trained to be quiet on command.
  • Manchester Terriers can be stubborn and difficult to housebreak. Crate training is recommended.
  • Manchesters are energetic dogs and like to go for walks. Be care in off-leash or unsecured areas; when their hunting instincts kick in, training is out the window. It's all about the chase.
  • They bark, dig, and kill vermin and small critters, including pocket pets.
  • To get a healthy dog, never buy a puppy from an irresponsible breeder, puppy mill, or pet store. Look for a reputable breeder who tests her breeding dogs to make sure they're free of genetic diseases that they might pass onto the puppies, and that they have sound temperaments.

Other Quick Facts

  • The Manchester Terrier is a small dog, slightly longer than he is tall, with a short coat in jet black with rich mahogany markings. He has a wedge-shaped head with a keen, bright expression shining out of black, almond-shaped eyes. This is a breed with curves. The neck is slightly arched; the topline (back) is slightly arched over the loins; and the abdomen is tucked up with an arched line. The tail tapers to a point and is carried in a slight upward curve.
  • With the exception of size, the only difference between the Standard and Toy Manchester is ear shape. The Standard Manchester has a naturally erect ear, a cropped ear or a button ear. Cropped ears are long and pointed. A Toy Manchester has a naturally erect ear, never one that has been cropped.
Breed standards
AKC group: Toy
UKC group: Terrier
Average lifespan: 15 - 18 years
Average size: 6 - 8 pounds
Coat appearance: Smooth-haired, shiny
Coloration: Black and tan
Hypoallergenic: No
Other identifiers: Muscular, long tapered head, V-shaped erect ears, dark almond-shaped eyes, black nose, pointed and erect tail.
Possible alterations: Standard versions are larger in size. Ears are known to naturally flop over.
Comparable Breeds: Italian Greyhound, Whippet

History of the Manchester Terrier
  The sleek and handsome Manchester Terrier is thought to have been created by crossing Britain’s black and tan terrier with the Whippet and possibly other breeds such as the Italian Greyhound. He originated in Manchester, where popular sports included rat killing and rabbit coursing. The Manchester was designed to excel at both and became popular throughout Britain.
  The dogs were eventually imported into the United States. The American Kennel Club recognized the Toy variety in 1886 and the Standard in 1887. The Manchester Terrier Club of America was formed in 1923. Today the breed ranks 121 st among the dogs registered by the AKC.

Temperament
  Manchester Terriers are lively, spirited, sharp-witted dogs. Although they look like small Dobermans, Manchesters are true terriers, through and through. They are extremely smart, somewhat independent and devoted to the people in their close circle. This is neither a cuddly nor a clingy breed. In fact, Manchester Terriers can be stubborn and, like most other terriers, they have a tendency to test boundaries. Manchesters can become destructive and noisy if left unattended for long periods of time. They typically get along well with children, as long as they are well-socialized with kids from an early age. Manchester Terriers are not particularly suspicious of strangers, although they can be a bit aloof and stand-offish. All in all, this is an alert, attentive breed that makes an ideal companion for city-dwellers.

Health 
  Manchester Terriers have an average life span of about 15 years. Breed health concerns may include von Willebrand disease, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, pattern baldness (mainly in females), Ehler-Danlos syndrome (cutaneous asthenia), lens luxation, cataracts and generalized progressive retinal atrophy (GPRA). These short-haired dogs become easily chilled and should wear a sweater or coat when outside in icy weather for any length of time.

Care
  Minimal coat care is required for the Manchester Terrier. It is an active and alert breed that should be led on moderate on-leash walks, off-lead outings in safe areas, or fun romp in the garden. Although it likes to spend the day in the yard, it should not be allowed to live outdoors and it needs a soft, warm bed.

Living Conditions
  The Manchester Terrier is a good dog for apartment living. They are very active indoors and will do okay without a yard. Manchester Terriers prefer warm climates.

Training
  Not the easiest breed in the world when it comes to training, the Manchester Terrier needs a patient and calm trainer. His stubborn streak means that the trainer must always have loads of cookies to keep him interested in the session. Harsh methods and yelling will cause this breed to shut down.
  Many owners have found that their Manchester Terriers can be great therapy dogs. They are easy to put in the car and actually like going for rides, which makes visiting hospitals and nursing homes easy. Providing they were socialized properly and had basic obedience training, Manchesters can do good things for those in less than ideal health.

Activity Requirements
  Manchester Terriers are active, athletic dogs, but unlike some little breeds they typically are not neurotic or excessively busy. A healthy dose of moderate exercise should suffice to keep them happy, healthy and fit. Manchesters love to accompany their human family members on all sorts of outings, from a simple stroll around the neighborhood to a trip to the grocery store. They absolutely adore playing fetch.

Grooming
  When it comes to grooming, the Manchester Terrier is an easy keeper. Though the breed is naturally clean with little doggie odor, a bath every three months (or when he gets dirty) in a mild shampoo is a good idea. Brush his sleek coat with a natural bristle brush or mitt. Use coat conditioner/polish to brighten the sheen.
  The rest is basic care. Trim the nails as needed, usually once every few weeks. Brush the teeth frequently with a vet-approved pet toothpaste for good overall health and fresh breath.   Check the ears weekly for dirt, redness or a bad odor that can indicate an infection. If the ears look dirty, wipe them out with a cotton ball dampened with a gentle, pH-balanced ear cleaner recommended by your veterinarian. Introduce the ManchesterTerrier to grooming when he is very young so he learns to accept it, particularly nail trimming, patiently.

Children And Other Pets
  Typically, a Manchester is devoted to his family and likes children but his small size makes him vulnerable to youngsters who aren't old enough to know it hurts when you yank his ears. Some breeders prefer homes without very young children. It helps to expose him to a lot of children, small and not so small, when he's young.
  Show your children how to approach and touch dogs, and supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's eating or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog should be left unsupervised with a child.
  Manchesters and other pets depends on... the other pets. They are less scrappy than many terriers, but don't lose sight of why they were bred: to kill vermin. They have a strong prey drive. So while they generally do well with other dogs, cats might be pretty nervous around them, and small critters like rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs would be in permanent danger around this terrier.

Is this breed right for you?
  A completely devoted breed, the Manchester Terrier is very loyal, loving and faithful. Active and full of life, it needs a lot of mental and physical stimulation to avoid behavioral problems. Not capable of being left alone for long periods of time, it is in constant need of human companionship. With a natural instinct to hunt, it does not do well with cats but can get along with other dogs if raised with them. Enjoying walks, games of fetch and other forms of activity, it does best with a large yard. A good family pet, it does best with children if introduced to them as a puppy.

Did You Know?
  The Manchester Terrier and Toy Manchester were registered as separate breeds until 1959. They are now treated as one breed — the Manchester Terrier — with two varieties: Toy and Standard.

A dream day in the life of a Manchester Terrier
  A breed that enjoys snuggling with its favorite humans, it will enjoy waking up to the alarm in its owner's bed. Known for cuddling, it will wait to get out of bed until its master does. Once up for the day, it'll greet the kids with affection before going for a romp in the yard. After a good breakfast, it will enjoy engaging in a game of fetch. After a nap with the smaller humans, the Manchester Terrier will follow them outside to sniff out the perimeter for any unwelcome visitors. Ending its day exactly as it started, it'll be keen for a nightly snuggle session.


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Friday, September 16, 2016

Everything about your Giant Schnauzer

Everything about your Giant Schnauzer
  The Giant Schnauzer, also for a time known as the Russian Bear Schnauzer, the Munich Schnauzer the Munchener, the Munchen Dog and the Riesenschnauzer , is a large, intelligent, loyal and sometimes headstrong breed developed in Germany hundreds of years ago. The first Giant Schnauzer was shown in Munich in 1909 under the breed name of the Russian Bear Schnauzer. The Giant Schnauzer was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1930, as a member of the Working Group.

Overview
  The Giant is the largest of the three Schnauzer breeds. He was created by German land owners who wanted a tough dog to drive their cattle. It’s thought that they started with the large and shaggy “Bear Schnauzer” and mixed in some herding and working dogs such as the Bouvier des Flandres, the black Great Dane, and the Standard Schnauzer. Today’s Giant Schnauzer has many good qualities, but he is demanding.
  The Giant Schnauzer is smart, but like any dog with a working background, he is an independent thinker. You must begin early teaching him to think of you as his leader. The Giant Schnauzer is not an appropriate choice for a first-time dog owner.
  It’s important to give him a job to do, from his daily training exercises to participating in a dog sport such as agility, obedience, rally, or tracking. Giant Schnauzers are energetic and athletic, and they enjoy long walks, jogging, and hiking on leash. Plan to take yours for at least a 20-minute walk twice a day, at a good pace, plus training practice for 20 minutes to an hour.
  Be aware that a Giant Schnauzer can be messy to keep. His beard will drip water after he drinks and will need to be cleaned after meals. You may also need to wipe walls or furniture if he shakes his head before you can get to a towel. His coat picks up all kinds of dirt and debris which may be deposited throughout your home.
  The Giant Schnauzer is best suited to a home with a large yard surrounded by a solid fence that is at least five or six feet high. Do not rely on an underground electronic fence to keep him contained. The shock it provides is nothing to this tough dog, and he won’t let it deter him from leaving the yard if that’s what he wants to do.
  Giant Schnauzers are a good choice for families with older children. They can be too active in the presence of toddlers and may accidentally knock them over.
  The Giant Schnauzer’s coat must be brushed or combed at least a couple of times a week to prevent or remove mats and tangles. To maintain the Giant Schnauzer’s distinctive look, you’ll need to trim his head and body regularly. You can take him to a professional groomer or learn to do it yourself. Other grooming requirements include cleaning the ears and trimming the nails as needed, brushing his teeth, and bathing him when he’s dirty.
  While you might think of him as an outdoor dog, nothing could be farther from the truth.   Chaining a Giant Schnauzer out in the yard and giving him little or no attention is not only cruel, it can also lead to aggression and destructive behavior. Giant Schnauzers are guardian dogs, devoted to their people. A Giant Schnauzer should have access to a securely fenced yard, but when the family is home, he should be in the house.

Highlights
  • Giant Schnauzers are energetic breed and require at least two long walks per day or 30 to 60 minutes of vigorous exercise in the backyard.
  • Without proper exercise and mental stimulation, Giant Schnauzers can become very destructive and difficult to handle.
  • Giant Schnauzers are not recommended for first-time or timid owners. They need a strong leader who can provide clear and consistent rules without resorting to physical force.
  • Although they are a very affectionate breed, the Giant Schnauzer is not recommended for homes with young children because of their size and forceful behavior.
  • Giant Schnauzers will make excellent guard dogs.
  • Apartments are not suitable dwellings for Giant Schnauzers. They need a large fenced yard where they can play and run safely.
  • Socialization is a must with this breed. They can be aggressive toward people, dogs, and other animals they don't know. They are naturally suspicious of strangers and need to become accustomed to experiencing new people and situations.
  • Giant Schnauzers are companion dogs and should live indoors. They thrive when they are with the people they love.
  • Giant Schnauzers require brushing one to three times a week. Their coats must also be stripped or clippered to remain neat looking.
  • Giant Schnauzers are intelligent dogs who learn quickly and excel at a variety of jobs. Be firm and consistent, and use positive reinforcement techniques such as praise, play, and food rewards. Giant Schnauzers will see and take advantage of any inconsistencies in your behavior.
  • Never buy a Giant Schnauzer from a puppy mill, a pet store, or a breeder who doesn't provide health clearances or guarantees. Look for a reputable breeder who tests her breeding dogs to make sure they're free of genetic diseases that they might pass onto the puppies and who breeds for sound temperaments.
Other Quick Facts
  • The Schnauzer hallmark is a harsh beard and eyebrows.
  • Its large body is nearly square, while the head has a strong rectangular appearance.
  • There are three Schnauzer breeds, classified by size.
  • The breed is named for a show dog named Schnauzer, who won a dog show in Hanover in 1879.
Breed standards
AKC: Working
UKC Guardian Dog
Life span: 10-12 years
Coat Dense, wiry
Color: Black or "pepper and salt"
Comparable Breeds: Doberman Pinscher, Rottweiler


History
  The first Giant Schnauzers emerged from Swabia in the German state of Bavaria, and W├╝rttemberg in the 17th century.These original Giant Schnauzers were considered a rough-coated version of the German pinscher breeds, and their hair was thought to help them withstand the harsh German winters and bites from vermin. The origins of the breed are unclear, but sources speculate it originated through some combination of black Great Danes, German Shepherds, Rottweilers, Dobermans, Boxers,Bouvier des Flandres, Thuringian Shepherds, and the Standard Schnauzer.
  The Giant Schnauzer was originally bred as a multipurpose farm dog for guarding property and driving animals to market. By the turn of the 20th century the Giant Schnauzer was being used as a watchdog at factories, breweries, butcheries, and stockyards throughout Bavaria.It was unknown outside Bavaria until it was used as a military dog in World War I and World War II. The first Giant Schnauzers were imported to America in the 1930s, but they remained rare until the 1960s,when the breed became popular. In 1962, there were 23 new Giant Schnauzers registered with the American Kennel Club; in 1974 this number was 386; in 1984 it was over 800 and in 1987 it was around 1000 animals. In 2012, there were 94 new dogs registered, down from 95 in 2011.
  In modern times, the Giant Schnauzer is used as a police dog; is trained for obedience, dog agility, herding, search and rescue, and schutzhund; and is shown in conformation shows. They are also used for carting. In Europe, the breed is considered to be more of a working dog than a show dog. The focus in many European Schnauzer clubs is not so much on conformation shows, but on the working ability of the breed. In several countries, including Germany, dogs must achieve a Schutzhund Champion title before they can qualify to be a conformation champion.

Personality
  The Giant Schnauzer has the calm, loving temperament of a companion dog and the assertiveness, boldness and energy required of a guard and working dog.
He takes his responsibilities seriously and is protective of home and family, willing to defend them with a fierceness that can be intimidating. This is a territorial dog who's distrustful of strangers, but when he's not needed as a guardian, he's a playful and affectionate companion.
  His intelligence can pose a challenge to the inexperienced trainer, however. Giant Schnauzers require consistent and firm guidance. Without it, they're quite capable of thinking for themselves and running the household the way they think it ought to be run.
  As with every dog, Giant Schnauzers need early socialization — exposure to many different people, sights, sounds, and experiences when they're young. Socialization helps ensure that your Giant Schnauzer puppy grows up to be a well-rounded dog.
Health
  The Giant Schnauzer, which has an average lifespan of 10 to 12 years, suffers from minor health issues such as Osteochondrosis Dissecans (OCD), hypothyroidism, and gastric torsion. This breed is also prone to canine hip dysplasia (CHD), a serious health concern. To identify some of these issues early, a veterinarian may recommend regular hip and thyroid exams for the dog.

Care
  Giant Schnauzers are not recommended for apartments or condos. They have high energy levels indoors and out, and are best suited to a home with a fenced yard where they can safely run off some of that energy. When they're not playing outdoors, Giant Schnauzers should be inside with their people, whom they will happily follow around the house.
  Giant Schnauzers require at least an hour of daily exercise. Plan on a couple of half-hour walks at a good clip or vigorous play. He can be a digger or chewer, so always give him something constructive to do instead.
  This is a breed that needs a job. Train him to do tricks or help you around the house if you want to forestall destructive behavior. He doesn't like to be bored, so avoid frequent repetition and turn training into a challenging game to get the best out of him.
Train him with firmness and consistency. He can be stubborn and you must be more stubborn. You must be able to provide leadership without resorting to physical force or harsh words.
  It's best if you work with a trainer who's familiar with and understands the breed. Your Giant Schnauzer will respond with enthusiasm to training techniques that are positive and keep him on his toes.

Living Conditions
  The Giant Schnauzer is not suited for apartment life. It is fairly active indoors and will do best with acreage.

Training
  Giant Schnauzers require good training to grow up properly socialized. They are outdoor dogs that need a lot of exercise, so exercise should be included in their training. These dogs need to be raised to understand that other dogs are not a threat and that strangers are not, either. Displaying your status as a pack leader in your dog’s perceived tribe is very important with these dogs, as they can quickly believe that they are the pack leaders without the presence of someone with more discipline than them.
  If a Giant Schnauzer has been properly trained, it can have a very endearing personality and can even be known as a very playful breed.

Activity Requirements
  For people who aren't prepared to walk or run several miles a day, the Giant Schnauzer is not the right choice. For active people, he makes an excellent companion, as his daily activity requirements are high. Walking, jogging, hiking and biking are good ways to keep Schnauzers physically fit, and enrolling them in agility training can keep their minds sharp.   Couch potatoes or city dwellers may not be the right choice for this breed, as they need lots of space, both indoors and out. Proper exercise not only keeps Giant Schnauzers physically fit, but it also helps maintain a steady temperament. High-strung Schnauzers are probably not getting enough exercise.

Grooming
  The Giant Schnauzer’s distinctive look — eyebrows, thick beard, clipped body — doesn’t come naturally. Regular grooming is essential, including brushing, bathing, haircut, nail trim, and ear cleaning. Expect to groom  your dog every six to eight weeks, especially if you wish to keep the coat trimmed short and those eyebrows distinct. Regular brushing every week between stylings will keep the breed’s double coat.
  Shop around before choosing a groomer. Grooming a Giant Schnauzer properly requires good clippering and scissoring skills. Make sure the groomer has experience with the breed, both in terms of styling and handling.
  The rest is basic care. Trim the nails as needed, usually every few weeks. Brush the teeth frequently for good overall health and fresh breath.

Children And Other Pets
  Because of their size, energy level, and commanding nature, Giant Schnauzers are not recommended for homes with young children. The suggested age range is 12 and older who have the maturity to interact appropriately with a large-breed dog.
  Always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party.
  Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's sleeping or eating or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog, no matter how good-natured, should ever be left unsupervised with a child.
  Giant Schnauzers don't tend to be buddy-buddy with other dogs, especially those of the same sex, and they probably shouldn't be trusted alone with cats, no matter how well they seem to get along.

Did You Know?
  The Giant Schnauzer was probably developed in southern Bavaria and for a long time was known as the Munchener, after the city of Munich.

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Thursday, September 8, 2016

Everything about your Schipperke

Everything about your Schipperke
  Choosing to add a furry friend to your growing household is a long-term commitment, and picking a breed that fits your lifestyle presents the key to a happy home. With over 160 American Kennel Club-recognized breeds, that decision can seem overwhelming. We're here to help you meet the breed that's right for you. If you're looking for a loyal and devoted companion to bring into your family, learn everything you need to know about the Shipperke.

Overview
  Bred to guard canal bridges in Belgium, the Schipperke is lovingly nicknamed "little captain" or "little skipper." Known for being the captain's dog, the breed played a very important role on the ships. Popular in Belgium homes, it became a worldwide-known breed after being seen with Queen Marie Henriette. Coming to the U.S. in the 1900s, the breed has become increasingly popular in American households. Still a great companion on ships and boats, the active breed is a very kind and loving family dog.

Highlights
  • Schipperkes are a long-lived breed. It is important that you understand the length of time a Schipperke can live and make sure you are committed enough to provide a good life for the dog for the next 15 or more years.
  • The Schipperke is so independent-minded he's not recommended for first-time dog owners.
  • These are adaptable dogs who can do well in any setting, including life on a boat or in an apartment, as long as they get plenty of daily exercise and the neighbors are tolerant of barking! They do best, however, if they have a small fenced yard to run in.
  • Schipperkes have a high energy level and will demand at least a half hour of activity every day, and preferably more.
  • Schipperkes are considered light shedders except for twice a year, when they shed heavily. Weekly brushing keeps their coat clean, and they don't need frequent baths.
  • Training can be challenging if it is not done with patience, consistency, and positive reinforcement, all aided by a good sense of humor.
  • Schipperkes are naturally suspicious of strangers and can be territorial toward people and other dogs. They make excellent watchdogs.
  • Loving and devoted, the Schipperke is an ideal family dog who adores children. They can get along with other dogs, especially if they are properly socialized, and they get along with cats extremely well.
  • Schipperkes can be noisy and they will bark for entertainment and as an alert.
  • Never buy a Schipperke from a puppy mill, a pet store, or a breeder who doesn't provide health clearances or guarantees. Look for a reputable breeder who tests her breeding dogs to make sure they're free of genetic diseases that they might pass onto the puppies and who breeds for sound temperaments.
Other Quick Facts
  • The Schipperke is a small black tailless dog with a foxy face. He has a square body and a distinctive coat, characterized by a ruff that stands out from the neck, a cape, jabot and culottes, all creating a dog with a unique silhouette. The ruff begins behind the ears and goes all the way around the neck. The cape is an additional layer beyond the ruff. The jabot .
  • The Schipperke has a wedge-shaped head with prick ears and small oval dark-brown eyes. His expression is questioning, mischievous, impudent, and alert.
  • The Schipperke is what’s called a natural breed, meaning his coat should not be sculpted in any way. Only the whiskers and the hair between the pads of the feet may be trimmed for the show ring.
  • This breed’s name is often pronounced “skipper-kee” but in Flemish it is pronounced “sheep-er-ker.”
  • One of the earliest, maybe the first, dog shows was one for Schipperkes held in Brussels in 1690.
  • Legend has it that the Schipperke’s taillessness arose in the 17th century when a shoemaker became angry that his neighbor’s dog kept stealing from him and cut off the tail.
Breed standards
AKC group: Non-sporting
UKC group: Companion
Average lifespan: 13 - 15 years
Average size: 10 - 16 pounds
Coat appearance: Thick and soft
Coloration: Black
Hypoallergenic: No
Other identifiers: Fox-like look to medium-sized body; wide chest and large, erect ears; small black nose and oval eyes; typically born tailless
Possible alterations: Can be tan or fawn in color, although not accepted by the UKC
Comparable Breeds: Keeshond, Samoyed

History
  The Schipperke is an old breed that was developed in Belgium. He has often been erroneously called a "Dutch Dog," but the breed is not associated with Holland in any way.
The Schipperke is believed to be descended from a black sheepdog called a Leauvenaar, the same breed credited with being the foundation dog for the Groenendael. While the Groenendael was developed to be a herding breed, the Schipperke was developed to be a small watchdog. They were often seen guarding the boats that plied the canals between Brussels and Antwerp.
  The Schipperke has the distinction of having one of the first "specialty shows." This show took place in 1690, when members of the shoemakers guild were invited to display their Schipperkes and their hammered brass collars, which were a custom at the time, in the Grand Place of Brussels.
  Originally known as the Spitske or Spits, the Schipperke was given its current name when the breed club was formed in 1888. The word Schipperke may mean "little shepherd" or "little captain," either of which would be appropriate given this breed's heritage.
  The Schipperke became a fashionable pet after Queen Marie Henriette saw one at a Brussels dog show in 1885. The popularity of the breed grew and the Schipperke was eventually imported to the United States in 1888.
  The first United States specialty club for the Schipperke was formed in 1905, but the official breed club, the Schipperke Club of America, was not founded until 1929.
  Today, the Schipperke is loved for his cleverness, devotion, and versatility, as well as his sly sense of humor. He ranks 82nd among the 155 breeds and varieties recognized by the American Kennel Club.



Personality
  The Schipperke is the proverbial "big dog in a little dog's body." He's active, confident, and curious. A closed door is simply a challenge to be overcome.
  The Schipperke retains his puppylike qualities — including the troublesome ones — until he's 4 or 5 years old.
  He loves his people and wants to please them, but he also likes to have his own way. If he's allowed to, the Schipperke will soon be running the household. Protective, fearless, and naturally suspicious of strangers, he makes an excellent watchdog and will take on anyone who seems to have evil intent.
  Schipperkes are selective in offering their friendship, generally limiting it to family members, with whom they create strong bonds. When it comes to training, they're mischievous and can be stubborn, but with positive reinforcement they learn quickly.
  Like every dog, Schipperkes need early socialization — exposure to many different people, sights, sounds, and experiences — when they're young. Socialization helps ensure that your Schipperke puppy grows up to be a well-rounded dog.

Health
  The average life expectancy of the Schipperke is 12 to 15 years. Increased health risks associated with this breed include epilepsy, hip dysplasia, hypothyroidism, progressive retinal atrophy, Legg-Calves-Perthes disease, and cataracts.

Care
  The Schipperke is an easy to care for and adaptable breed who should live indoors with his family. During hot weather, which he doesn't tolerate well, he enjoys lying in front of a fan or beneath a ceiling fan.
  He generally does well in all types of settings and families, as long as he gets plenty of daily exercise and firm and consistent guidance from someone with a sense of humor.
With his high activity level, however, he may be best suited to a home with a small but securely fenced yard where he can run off some of his energy. Be aware that Schipperkes like to dig, especially if there may be a mole at the end of the tunnel.
  Schipperkes need at least half an hour of exercise daily, and more is better. Their people are usually tired before they are. They are always running and playing and will use your house as a racetrack when the mood strikes. Walk them on leash to prevent a sudden dash toward an interesting animal or object.
  Count on two daily walks to keep your Schipperke's desire for action satisfied. He'll also enjoy riding in a basket on a bicycle or cruising the aisles of the pet supply store in a grocery cart.
  Begin training when your Schipperke is young, and continue to reinforce lessons throughout his life. He requires a trainer who's patient and consistent and responds best to positive reinforcement techniques such as food rewards, praise, and play.
  The Schipperke is known for being stubborn. Although he's intelligent and wants you to be happy, his idea of how things should be may outweigh any desire to please. Some Schipperkes can be difficult to housetrain, and crate-training is recommended.

Living Conditions
  Schipperkes are good dogs for apartment life. They are very active indoors. These dogs are incredibly quick and it is a good idea to have a fenced yard.

Trainability
  Schipperkes can be a handful to train, but with a little patience, it can be done. They bore easily, so it is important to keep sessions short and to vary the routine in order to hold their interest. Positive reinforcement is all you need to get your Schipperke to learn new behavior, as they soak up praise and treats. These little dogs are smart, however, and they can often manipulate you into bending the rules, whether it be flaunting their sheer cuteness or blatantly breaking a rule so many times that you give up enforcing it. 100% consistency is key in raising an obedient Schipperke.
  Housebreaking a Schipperke can also be a challenge as they will flaunt their independence by relieving themselves where and when they please. Crate training is the best recipe for success, and expect anywhere from six to eight months of training before your Schipperke finally follows the program.

Exercise
  The Schipperke is an active and tireless breed. To be happy and mentally stable, they need to be taken on a daily, long walk or jog. They also enjoy play and getting a chance to run. This breed is very active indoors and will get a lot of its exercise running around your house. It will greatly enjoy running free off its lead in a safely fenced-in yard or a park.

Grooming
  The Schipperke’s abundant double coat is straight and slightly harsh to the touch, with a soft, dense undercoat. The coat should never be silky or excessively long or short.
  Although the Schipperke’s coat looks like a lot of work, it can be maintained with brushing once a week — more often when he’s shedding, which occurs once or twice a year. Bathe him only when he’s dirty or every three or four months.
  The rest is basic care. Trim the nails as needed, but Schipperkes are not fond of having their nails trimmed, so consider using a nail grinder instead.
  Keep the ears clean and dry. Check them weekly for redness or a bad odor that might indicate infection. If the ears look dirty, wipe them out with a cotton ball moistened with a mild pH-balanced cleanser recommended by your veterinarian. Brush the teeth frequently with a vet-approved pet toothpaste for good overall health and fresh breath.
  It is important to begin grooming the Schipperke when he is very young. An early introduction teaches the independent Schipperke that grooming is a normal part of his life and to patiently accept the handling and fuss of the grooming process.

Children And Other Pets
  Sturdy and energetic, Schipperkes can be loyal and affectionate companions to children. They generally get along well with children of all ages, playing gently and kindly with younger ones.
  Always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's sleeping or eating or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog, no matter how good-natured, should ever be left unsupervised with a child.
  The Schipperke generally does very well with cats who share his home. This acceptance is stronger if the Schipperke has been raised with cats. He can also get along with other dogs if he's raised with them, but it's important to realize that the breed is territorial and will defend its property from unknown dogs as well as people.

Is this breed right for you?
  Extremely devoted to his master, the Schipperke is an intelligent and active breed. Very loving with children and getting along well with other animals if exposed to them early on, it's likely that the Schipperke will attach himself to his master. Easy to train and a good guard dog, the breed will need proper leadership to avoid behavioral issues. If he believes he's the pack leader, he will act unlike himself with an erratic personality. Likely to bark, he will need to be socialized well. Doing OK with apartment life if properly exercised, the Schipperke does best with a small yard that he can play in. Requiring little grooming, he is an average shedder.

Did You Know?
  Legend has it that the Schipperke’s taillessness arose in the 17th century when a shoemaker became angry that his neighbor’s dog kept stealing from him and cut off the tail.

Populars Schipperke
  • In World War II, the Belgian Resistance used the dogs to run messages between various resistance hideouts and cells, to which occupying Nazi Forces were none the wiser.
  • A Schipperke is intermittently featured in the tiger-centric movie Two Brothers (2004).
A dream day in the life of a Schipperke
  Waking up in the bed of his master, the Schipperke will go downstairs to greet the other members of the family with a few licks. Going outside for a quick run around the yard, he'll come back inside for playtime with the kiddos. A great guard dog, he'll bark at any strangers that approach the home. Enjoying a walk in the afternoon, he'll come in and out of the house, taking a small nap and hanging out with the family. After practicing a few tricks, the Schipperke will tuck himself in next to his master for a good snooze.

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Top 10 Black Dogs Breeds

Top 10 Black Dogs Breeds
  Black colored dogs are usually rarer than the other color varieties. From all dog coat colors, the black color is also the most fascinating and one of the few ones that has been purposely bred for a specific function. In the Northern countries for example, the Black Norwegian Elkhound was bred as a separate breed since 1877 because its distinctive color helps the hunter see his dog in the snowy landscape.
  There's no doubt that black dogs have a bad reputation. According to the ASPCA, they are the last to be adopted and the first to be euthanized. What's worse is that many people perceive them as less lovable because they are harder to see, and have been negatively portrayed in the media. In celebration of black dogs, we've rounded up 10 of the most popular black dog breeds that are giving it their all to proudly represent their coat color.

1. Great Dane
  The Great Dane was originally bred to hunt wild boar, but he probably wouldn't be very good at it today. The ferociousness necessary to track down such a large, wily animal was eventually bred out of the Great Dane. He's now a gentle soul who generally gets along well with other dogs, animals, and humans.
AKC standard for Black Great Danes: The color shall be a glossy black. White markings at the chest and toes are not desirable.  Any variance in color or markings as described above shall be faulted to the extent of the deviation. Any Great Dane which does not fall within the above color classifications must be disqualified.

2. Rottweiler
  Rottweiler dogs are sturdy build rectangular proportioned energetic dog which is a little longer in length than in height. The body structure is heavy boned with powerful muscle and dense substantial physique. Great stamina to drive cattle throughout the day, Rottweiler is not ignorant in its duty of herding. The powerful and elegant gait of the dog is full of confidence, signifies good drive and approach. The coat of Rottweiler is dense and straight but moderately rough; collectively expression projects a keen, alert responsive and confident investigator.
  "Rottweiler breeders aim at a dog of abundant strength, black coated with clearly defined rich tan markings, whose powerful appearance does not lack nobility and which is exceptionally well suited to being a companion, service and working dog."This breed is all about balance, endurance, proportionality, intelligence and strength. The various standards in place for the Rottweiler's physical appearance specify these characteristics.

3.Cane Corso
  The black breed Cane Corso originates from Italy. They are a large Italian breed of dog that is also known as Italian mastiffs. This breed is reserved, calm, quiet and evenly tempered. They are also very well muscled and less bulky than other mastiff dogs. Cane Corsos are closely related to Neapolitan mastiffs and have many similarities with them. Most of the Cane Corso assist in guarding big properties and hunt big wild boars. For many people, they are the favourite black dog breed.
  Majestic look Cane Corso is a muscular dog with massive build. The look is furious rather dreadful to warn intruder without any action by dog. Cane Cosro can spring into action with astonishing speeds to pin culprits. This is a versatile breed domesticate able to a variety of applications starting from hunting, guardian, watchdog , general working dog besides trustworthy companion. Its short coat is coarser; some could be near to smooth while dense to offer resistance to water and other climatic severe effects. Favourite color is Black to achieve formidable expression.

4. Doberman Pinscher
  Doberman pinscher, popularly known as Doberman is a medium large sized domestic dog. They originate from Germany and in the early 19th century, they were used as guard dogs. They are a mix breed of Rottweiler, Black Terriers and German Pinscher. Dobermans are strong and sometimes they can also be stubborn. Height of a male Doberman is around 66-72 cm whereas females are around 61-68 cm. A Male Doberman weighs around 34-45 kg and female ones weigh 27-41 kgs. They are highly energetic and intelligent dogs, best used for police and military work.
  The Doberman is compactly built, muscular, powerful and square-proportioned. It combines elegance and strength with speed and endurance. Its carriage is proud and alert, and its gait is free and vigorous. Its coat is short, smooth and hard, showing off the exceptionally clean-cut lines of this athletic breed.
  The Doberman pinscher is an intelligent capable guardian, ever on the alert and ready to protect its family or home. It is also a loyal and adventurous companion. It likes to be mentally challenged and is a gifted obedience pupil. It is sensitive and very responsive to its owner's wishes, though some can be domineering. It is generally reserved with strangers. It can be aggressive with strange dogs.

5. Newfoundland
  Newfoundland is one of the strongest breeds of dog which is perfect for being a lifeguard. He was originally used as a working dog for pulling nets for fishermen and haul wood from the forest. The breed Newfoundland originates from Canada. It is well suited for working on both land as well as water. It is known for its giant size, calm dispositions, loyalty and also forbeing anexcellent swimmer.
  Brown, black, gray and black with white are the recognized Newfoundland colors. Solid colors and white with black may have white on the chest, chin, toes and on the tip of the tail. A tinge of bronze may appear on a gray or black coat and lighter furnishings may appear on a brown or gray coat. Facial and muzzle hair is short and fine. The back legs are feathered for the entire length. The hair on the tail is long and dense.

6. Portuguese Water Dog

  Classified as a working dog, the Portuguese Water Dog is a hard worker and a loyal companion. It has been appreciated for its strength, soundness and spirtit for centuries along the coast of Portugal. This robust breed has a waterproof coat, giving it the ability to swim for hours. Called a Cao de Aqua, or dog of water in Portugal, the dog was bred as a working dog for fisherman on boats. The breed has dove for fish, retrieved broken nets, carried messages back to shore and guarded his master's boats while in foreign ports.
  The Water Dog has a thick coat of strong hair. It covers the body evenly except where the forearm joins the groin area where it is thinner. Some coats are curly and lusterless. Other coats are more wavy than curly with a slight sheen. 
  Coat color is white, black or tones of brown. The coat may also be a combination of brown, black and white. Water Dogs with white, black or black and white coats have bluish skin.

7.Neapolitan Mastiff 

  With its massive size made even more imposing by its abundant loose skin and dewlap, the Neapolitan Mastiff may have the most alarming appearance of any dog, and some say this look was purposefully bred in order to scare away intruders without the dog having to act. However, when forced to act, the Neo can spring into action with surprising speed. Its massive muscular body can knock down almost any intruder. Its huge head with short, powerful jaws and large teeth can crush or hold an opponent. The skin is tough and hanging, adding to the imposing impression of size as well as formidable expression.
  The Neapolitan Mastiff was bred for centuries to guard its family. As such, it is incredibly loyal and devoted to its family, watchful and suspicious of strangers, and tolerant of acquaintances. It is a stay-at-home-type dog. Although it is loving toward children, its sheer size can make accidents possible. It may not get along well with other dogs, especially domineering-type dogs. Because of its size, it should be carefully socialized at an early age.
  The Neo is short-haired with straight hairs that are one inch long or shorter. The coat is dense with hair uniform in length, giving a smooth appearance all over the body. There are no tufts or fringed hair anywhere. 
  Solid colors for coats include light and dark shades of black, gray-blue, tawny and mahogany. The AKC allows some brindling in all colors if the brindling is tan. This is known as reverse brindling. Some may have white markings on the chest, throat, underside of the body or on the toes. White hairs behind the wrists are accepted by the AKC.

8. Havanese
  Known for being the “National Dog of Cuba” and the only dog breed native to the island country, the Havanese is a small dog breed known for its silky coat that protects it against the harsh heat of the tropics. As a trainable and intelligent dog that possesses a naturally friendly and affectionate disposition, the Havanese is currently ranked as the 28th most popular dog breed in the United States by the American Kennel Club. If you are wondering whether the Havanese is the perfect match for you, the following is a complete description on this energetic toy breed.
  The abundant coat of the Havanese is acceptable in all coat colors, with white, fawn, red, cream brown, beige, orange, black, blue, chocolate, and silver being quite common. While the coat may be one solid color, others will have markings that create sable, brindle, black and tan, Irish piebald, part-colored, piebald, beige black, and more color patterns.
  Sometimes referred to as “Havana Silk Dogs,” the Havanese is a double-coated breed with soft, wavy, and silky lightweight hair on both the outer coat and undercoat. Reaching six to eight inches in length if never clipped or altered, the profuse coat is extremely light and insulating with a sheen appearance.

9.Yorkshire Terrier
  Affectionately referred to as “Yorkies” by their loyal owners, Yorkshire Terriers are members of the Toy Group that offer big personalities in a small package. As a portable pooch prized for its compact size and luxurious long-haired coat, the Yorkshire Terrier is currently ranked as the 6th most popular breed in the United States by the American Kennel Club. Read on to find a full breed description on the Yorkshire Terrier to determine whether the active dog will be an ideal match for your family’s lifestyle.
  Since the breed is often defined by its color, the breed standard indicates that the only acceptable coloring for the Yorkshire Terrier is steel blue and tan. While the body and tail are typically blue, the remainder of the dog’s body is tan. Puppies are often tan, black, and brown with white markings, but the pups will usually reach its final coloring by their third birthday.

10. Affenpinscher
  The Affenpinscher is a terrier type breed that originated in Central Europe, specifically Munich, Germany and France. The name Affenpinscher translates from German into Monkey Terrier. It is one of the oldest breeds in the Toy Group. During the 17th century they were kept on farms and stores to serve as ratters and in the home to keep mice out of the mistresses' boudoirs. It is an energetic little dog with the face and impishness of a monkey. They strut around with all the confidence of a larger dog. Their small size makes them a good dog for city and apartment dwellers. They are active indoors and can most of their exercise inside.
  The Affenpinscher's coat hair is thick and rough and about one-inch in length on the shoulders and body. The hair may be shorter on the backside and the tail. The hair on the head, chest, neck, stomach and legs is a little longer and softer. An adult will have a cape of sturdy hair that blends into the back coat near the withers. Longer hair on the head, beard and eyebrows frames the face to form the monkey-like expression. 
  Coat colors include black, red, silver, gray, black and tan or belge (a mixture of black and reddish brown.) Dogs with a black coat may have a few silver or white areas mixed in or may have a rusty cast. Reds vary from orange-tan to brownish red. The belge color coats have black, brown and/or white mixed in the red. Some dogs may have a small white spot on the chest. This is not penalized by kennel clubs but large white patches are not desirable.


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