LUV My dogs: Nordic

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Showing posts with label Nordic. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Nordic. Show all posts

Friday, February 26, 2016

Everything about your American Eskimo Dog

Everything about your American Eskimo Dog
  Charming, intelligent, warm and friendly, American Eskimo Dogs are also slightly reserved. Their loyalty to family and home can be intense: Some American Eskimo Dogs will keep strangers from entering the home until their master approves. This makes them a superb watchdog—they are protective without being aggressive.

Overview
  The soft, white, and fluffy American Eskimo is sometimes referred to as "The Dog Beautiful." The Eskie is clever, active and mischievous. If you don’t have those same qualities in equal or greater amounts, he’ll have you wrapped around his little white paw in no time flat. This Spitz breed has many excellent qualities, including three different sizes, but he’s not the right breed for everyone.
  The Eskie twinkles up at you with a keen, alert expression. He loves to have a good time and is always ready for an adventure. His curious and comical nature is sure to make you laugh several times a day. He is sensitive and dislikes discord among family members. Don’t argue in front of him; he won’t like it.
  He bonds deeply to his people, but he is not necessarily the best choice for a family with young children. He can be impatient with being hugged or manhandled and skittish at being approached too quickly. He’s wary of strangers and makes an excellent watchdog. Sometimes, he’s too good a watchdog. It’s not unusual for him to become a nuisance barker, so while his size is perfect for apartment living, his noise level might not be unless someone is home to control him.
  Train the Eskie with patience and consistency and he will be surprisingly responsive. For best results, use positive reinforcement techniques such as praise, play and food rewards.
  Last but not least, it should go without saying that a people-loving dog like the American Eskimo needs to live in the house. It’s an unhappy Eskie who is relegated to the backyard with little or no human companionship.

Highlights
  • Eskies are happy, active, intelligent dogs. They thrive on activity. Plan on keeping your Eskie busy with training classes, games, romps at a dog park, or hikes. A busy Eskie is unlikely to become bored — a state you want to avoid with this breed, because boredom leads to excessive barking, inappropriate chewing, and other annoying behaviors.
  • The Eskie needs to be with his family, so don't plan on leaving him alone for long periods at a time, or he may develop separation anxiety.
  • If you are a confident leader, you'll enjoy life with an Eskie. If you're not, you're apt to have an Eskie that's leading you.
  • Do not trust even a well-trained and well-socialized Eskie with small pets such as birds, hamsters, and gerbils. Chances are, he will succumb to his instincts and give chase.
  • To get a healthy dog, never buy a puppy from an irresponsible breeder, puppy mill, or pet store.
Other Quick Facts
  • The American Eskimo was a popular circus dog in the early 20th century.
  • The American Eskimo comes in three sizes: Toy, Miniature and Standard.
Breed Standards
AKC : Non-sporting
UKC Northern Breeds
Breed Group: Non-Sporting 
Height:
Toy: 9–12 inches and 6–10 lbs
Miniature: 12–15 inches and 10–17 lbs
Standard: 15–20 inches and 18–25 lbs
Weight: 7 to 10 pounds; 11 to 20 pounds; 20 to 40 pounds 
Life Span: 12 to 15 years
Coat: The American Eskimo Dog has a two-layered coat. The undercoat is short and dense, and the outer coat consists of long straight hair. The coat is thicker and longer around the chest and neck, giving the appearance of a mane. American Eskimo Dogs must be white or biscuit cream--any other color is unacceptable. The American Eskimo Dog sheds twice a year.
Comparable Breeds: Alaskan Malamute, Samoyed



History
  The American Eskimo Dog undoubtedly descended from several European spitz breeds, including the white Keeshond from Holland, the white German Spitz, the white Pomeranian from Germany and the Volpino Italiano, or white Italian Spitz. During the middle part of the 19th century, small, white Nordic-type dogs were common in American communities of German immigrants. Collectively, these dogs became referred to as the American Spitz.   This spunky breed gained extreme popularity for use as trick dogs in traveling circuses across the United States. Supposedly, an American Eskimo named Stout’s Pal Pierre walked on a tightrope in the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey circus. The public loved seeing their sparkling white coats and quickness, while trainers prized them for these attributes along with their inherent intelligence, agility and trainability.
  Although the reason is not clear, the American Spitz was renamed the American Eskimo in 1917. This modern title mistakenly suggests that these are miniature versions of larger sled-pulling dogs developed in the far northern parts of this continent. The change from “Spitz” to “Eskimo” may be explained by the political climate in the United States during World War I. “Spitz” is a German work that means “sharp point” and was used to describe northern dogs with pointed muzzles, erect ears, curled tails and double coats, and it has been suggested that the name change was an attempt to distance the breed in America from its German origins.
   The national parent club for the breed, the American Eskimo Dog Club of America (AEDCA), was formed in 1985 and opened its studbook in 1986. The AEDCA transferred its studbook to the American Kennel Club in 1993, with more than 1,750 Eskies registered as foundation stock. The American Eskimo Dog became part of the AKC’s Non-Sporting Group and fully recognized in 1995. Eskies are competitive in obedience, agility, rally and the conformation show ring. They are used as narcotics detection dogs and even guard dogs. While popular in the United States, this breed is little-known in other countries.

Personality
  The Eskie is smart, friendly and a good communicator. His alert nature makes him an excellent watchdog, but beware! He is highly vocal. Train him from a very early age that excessive barking isn’t permitted.
  An American Eskimo will let you know what he wants through glances and barks. A look at the cookie jar, followed by a look at you and a look back at the jar sends a very clear message. Hypnotized by his dark eyes and smiling face, you’ll find yourself mindlessly handing him a treat.
  The Eskie gets along with most everyone he meets, but he’s not always patient with tight squeezes from children. Closely supervise interactions with young children, and teach them how to pet the Eskie gently. An American Eskimo should never be shy or aggressive. Say no thanks if a puppy or his parents aren’t approachable.
  Start training your puppy the day you bring him home. Even at eight weeks old, he is capable of soaking up everything you can teach him. Don’t wait until he is 6 months old to begin training or you will have a more headstrong dog to deal with. If possible, get him into puppy kindergarten class by the time he is 10 to 12 weeks old, and socialize, socialize, socialize. However, be aware that many puppy training classes require certain vaccines  to be up to date, and many veterinarians recommend limited exposure to other dogs and public places until puppy vaccines  have been completed. In lieu of formal training, you can begin training your puppy at home and socializing him among family and friends until puppy vaccines are completed.
  Talk to the breeder, describe exactly what you’re looking for in a dog, and ask for assistance in selecting a puppy. Breeders see the puppies daily and can make uncannily accurate recommendations once they know something about your lifestyle and personality. Whatever you want from an Eskie, look for one whose parents have nice personalities and who has been well socialized from early puppyhood.

Health
  The American Eskimo is a hardy breed with an average life span of 12–15 years.This breed tends to become overweight easily, so proper diet and exercise is needed to maintain an overall well being. Health testing should be performed by all responsible breeders and anyone purchasing a puppy should be aware of the genetic problems which have been found in some individuals of the breed, such as PRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy), luxating patella, and hip dysplasia). None of these problems are common and the breed is generally very healthy. In addition to the rarer problems mentioned, the breed can have a tendency towards allergies and most commonly, tear-staining. This breed also is known in some cases to have dental issues.

Activity
  The standard American Eskimo Dog needs a good workout every day and should be taken for a long jog or walk. Provide plenty of water and shade during exercise to avoid overheating from the heavy coat. Eskies enjoy dog sports. Without interaction they may become bored and destructive.

Care
  All Eskies love cold weather. However, because they create close attachments to their human family, they should be allowed to live indoors. The Eskie's double coat must be combed and brushed twice a week, more during its shedding periods. The Eskie is also very energetic and requires a vigorous workout daily, although the duration of the workout is determined by the dog's size. For example, a larger Eskie requires a long walk or brisk jog, while short walks or a fun outdoor game are sufficient forms of exercise for smaller Eskies.

Living Conditions
  The American Eskimo will do okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. It is very active indoors and a small yard will be sufficient.

Training
  There are a few reasons why the American Eskimo Dog was used in circuses. Easily trainable, the Eskie loves to learn tricks. You’ll need to take the leadership role fast, because when this breed senses it can take control over the situation, it will take it. And because it is so intelligent, it will sense when confident leadership is lacking. To get the best results out of training, use positive reinforcement. Once you’ve completed basic training, be sure to enroll your dog in more advanced courses – it will help to stimulate your dog’s mind.
  The American Eskimo Dog is a natural born watchdog, so there’s no training necessary. And even though this breed is a watchdog, it will not develop aggressive traits. Start training as soon as possible for the best results.

Grooming
  The Eskie has a double coat: a dense undercoat topped by longer guard hairs. He has a ruff around the neck, which is more prominent on males than on females. The backs of the legs and the tail are also furry.
  Brush the Eskie’s straight, thick coat a couple of times a week to prevent or remove mats and tangles. Plan to brush it more often when he’s shedding to keep loose hair off your clothes and furniture. You’ll need a slicker brush, pin brush and metal Greyhound comb. Bathe the Eskie about every three months.
  The rest is basic care. Trim the nails as needed, usually every few weeks, and brush the teeth frequently for good overall health and fresh breath.

Children And Other Pets
  The Eskie is an excellent family dog who's affectionate with everyone, including kids of all ages, other dogs, and cats. Of course, adults should always supervise interactions between kids and dogs; the Eskie's high energy level can be overwhelming to extremely young children, so supervision is especially important.
  The Eskie does not receive high marks for living in peace with small mammals and birds, which he tends to chase.

Is this breed right for you?
  An active and intelligent breed, the American Eskimo Dog requires a lot of attention and firm training. Doing well with kids and animals, this working dog enjoys being busy. Not recommended for apartment life, the Eskie needs a lot of daily exercise and a yard to play freely in. 
  It's essential that he receives training, firm leadership and attention. If not, it's likely that the Eskie will act out and display negative behaviors. A true watchdog, he will protect the family from strangers but is happily friendly with family members and friends. In need of a lot of grooming, this breed needs twice-weekly to daily brushing.

Did You Know?
  The American Eskimo breed was developed by 19th-century German immigrants in the United States and was known for a while as the American Spitz

A dream day in the life of a American Eskimo Dog
  An alert breed, it's likely the American Eskimo Dog will be awake before any other family members. Out the door to scour the yard for any intruders or to work the farm, this breed will be happy to trot around until he hears someone in the kitchen. After his daily walk, the Eskie will be happy to receive a bit of petting and praise. Playing around with the kids, he'll keep himself busy going in and out of the house. Lying at the foot of his master at the end of the day, the Eskie will keep his ears up all night for anything that doesn't sound right.

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Monday, August 18, 2014

Everything about your Alaskan Malamute

Everything about your Alaskan Malamute
  A close cousin to the Samoyed, Siberian Husky and American Eskimo Dog, the Alaskan Malamute is a Nordic sled dog named after one of Alaska's native tribes. Not a racing breed, the Alaskan Malamute is built to pull heavy sled loads over lengthy distances. Very respected, this dog not only has a high endurance level and athletic ability, but a high willingness to work as well. A smart breed, the Alaskan Malamute enjoys any form of activity and has a deep love for its owner.
  The Alaskan Malamute features a powerful, sturdy body built for stamina and strength. It reigns as one of the oldest dog breeds whose original looks have not been significantly altered. This intelligent canine needs a job and consistent leadership to avoid becoming bored or challenging to handle.

Overview
  The Alaskan Malamute is a big, powerful dog who was bred to pull sleds in harsh terrain and brutal climates. Consider that fact carefully if you're at all unsure about your ability to walk a dog like that on a leash. And a leash is not optional equipment when it comes to a Malamute; not only does he roam, often for miles and days, but he’s usually ready to mix it up with other dogs and will hunt and kill wildlife and cats.
  Malamutes also extremely difficult to keep behind a fence, as they are expert diggers and climbers. If you want them back, Malamutes need to be microchipped and have an ID tag on their collars at all times. And while working Malamutes often live happily in kennel situations – because they get lots of exercise and plenty of interesting work to do -- relegating a Malamute to the backyard isn't a great idea, unless you like holes the size of a swimming pool, and your neighbors like howling. Not to mention that he'll probably not be there when you get home, since he considers fences to be interesting challenges rather than genuine obstacles.
  If none of that deters you, then you might be ready to consider some of the pluses to the Alaskan Malamute. He's handsome, with a primeval look that can make you feel the snowy winds of the tundra even when you're standing on a suburban lawn. And he absolutely adores children, although as with all large, powerful dogs, careful supervision is required.
  Malamutes can be affected by a few genetic diseases, and there are temperament problems in the breed, so be careful to get your dog from either an experienced breeder who does genetic screening and temperament tests on her dogs, or a reputable rescue group that evaluates them for temperament and suitability for your family and lifestyle.

Highlights
  • Not recommended for the first time dog owner as their intelligence combined with stubbornness can make them a challenge for someone not savvy in dog behavior.
  • Malamutes will challenge for alpha or top position in the household. Everyone who lives with the dog must be able to properly deal with this and clearly establish all family members as higher ranking than the Malamute.
  • Alaskan Malamutes are notorious diggers. Any fencing should be buried so they cannot dig out of their yard.
  • Alaskan Malamutes are a powerful, independent dog who, if not properly trained or exercised, can become destructive or bored.
  • With early socialization and training, Malamutes can learn to get along with other dogs and indoor cats. They'll view outdoor cats and other small animals as fair game.
  • Their high prey drive can cause a Malamute to stalk and kill small animals, including birds, squirrels, cats and even smaller dogs. They need to be properly socialized and introduced to other companion animals.
  • Alaskan Malamutes shed heavily twice a year. Their thick double coats are not suited for hot climates.
  • Generally a quiet breed, Malamutes rarely bark. They do hold conversations with you, vocally expressing themselves with "woo woo" sounds or loud, extensive howls.
  • To get a healthy dog, never buy a puppy from an irresponsible breeder, puppy mill, or pet store. Look for a reputable breeder who tests her breeding dogs to make sure they're free of genetic diseases that they might pass onto the puppies, and that they have sound temperaments.
Other Quick Facts
  • The Alaskan Malamute is a freighting dog, built to pull heavy loads for long distances. He is highly athletic with a well muscled body, deep chest, strong legs and a plume of a tail that waves over his back.
  • An Alaskan Malamute’s head is broad with prick ears and dark-brown eyes. He has distinctive markings: a cap over the head and a face that is either all white or marked with a bar or mask. The coat comes in several colors, including white , and gray, black, sable and red, all with white on the belly, legs, feet and face.
Breed standards
AKC group: Working group
UKC group: Northern Breed Group
Average lifespan: 13 - 15 years
Average size: 75 - 85 pounds
Coat appearance: Double coated with thick, coarse top coat and oily, wooly undercoat
Coloration: Wolf gray, black, black and white or sable with possible red markings
Hypoallergenic: No
Other identifiers: Athletically built with strong frame, erect ears, almond-shaped eyes that are dark in color, large fluffy tail
Possible alterations: May be all white in color or have blue eyes.

Comparable Breeds: Akita, Siberian Husky

History
  In some accounts, the Alaskan Malamute is described as a descendant of dogs of the Mahlemut group of Inupiat in upper western Alaska. These dogs had a prominent role with their human companions – as a utilitarian dog, working, hunting, and living alongside humans.The dogs were renowned for their excellent hunting abilities and were used to hunt large predators such as bears. They also aided their owners in finding seals by alerting to seal blow holes. The interdependent relationship between the Mahlemut and their dogs fostered prosperity among both and enabled them to flourish in the inhospitable land above the Arctic Circle.
  For a brief period during the Klondike Gold Rush of 1896, the Malamute and other sled dogs became extremely valuable to recently landed prospectors and settlers, and were frequently crossbred with imported breeds. This was often an attempt to improve the type, or to make up for how few true Malamutes were available to purchase. This seems to have had no long-standing effect on the modern Malamute, and 2004 DNA analysis shows that Malamutes are one of the oldest breeds of dog, genetically distinct from other dog breeds. A study in 2013 showed that the Alaskan Malamute has a similar east Asian origin to, but is not clearly related to, the Greenland Dog and the Inuit Sled Dog (Canadian Eskimo Dog), but contains a possible admixture of the Siberian Husky.
(AKC) "Breed recognition came in 1935, largely through the efforts of Mrs. Eva B. Seeley. At that time many dogs were of unknown ancestry. Those who appeared purebred were used for breeding, others weeded out. After a few years the registry was closed." 
  "Losses from service in World War II all but eliminated the breed. In 1947 there were estimated to be only about 30 registered dogs left, so the stud book was reopened. Mr. Robert J. Zoller became involved in the breed and took this opportunity to combine M’Loot and Hinman/Irwin dogs with selected Kotzebues to create what became the Husky-Pak line. All modern Malamutes are descended from the early strains, and show combinations of characteristics in greater or lesser degree. Thus the natural differences we see today.
  The Malamute dog has had a distinguished history; aiding Rear Admiral Richard Byrd to the South Pole, and the miners who came to Alaska during the Gold Rush of 1896, as well as serving in World War II primarily as search and rescue dogs in Greenland, although also used as freighting and packing dogs in Europe. This dog was never destined to be a racing sled dog; it was used for heavy freighting, pulling hundreds (maybe thousands) of pounds of supplies to villages and camps in groups of at least 4 dogs for heavy loads.
  The Alaskan Malamute is a member of the Spitz group of dogs, traced back 2,000 to 3,000 years ago to the Mahlemuits tribe of Alaska.
  In 2010 the Alaskan Malamute was named the official state dog of Alaska.

Temperament and Personality
  Alaskan Malamutes are friendly and love people. This makes them a wonderful choice for the active family who has an electronic burglar alarm and doesn’t need a Malamute for his watchdog abilities. That’s because he doesn’t have any.
  He is moderately vocal and will howl along with sirens or talk to you with expressive “woo-woos.” For a spitz breed, though, he’s pretty quiet and doesn’t typically become a nuisance barker.
  This dog is smart and curious, and he wants nothing more than to share his discoveries with his human family members. Discoveries like exactly how the sofa was put together, for example, or what the interior of your car would look like without all that carpeting and upholstery.
  The good news is that destructiveness in the Malamute is preventable and treatable. The cure is exercise, and lots of it, no matter what the weather is, or if you have the flu. Lots and lots of strenuous exercise. Hiking, pulling sleds in winter and carts in summer , competitive weight pulling and formal obedience are all good outlets for his brain and his brawn.
  The Malamute is smart, learns quickly and loves you, but he’s also strong-willed and independent.
  Start training your puppy the day you bring him home. Even at eight weeks old, he is capable of soaking up everything you can teach him. Don’t wait until he is 6 months old to begin training or you will have a more headstrong dog to deal with. If possible, get him into puppy kindergarten class by the time he is 10 to 12 weeks old, and socialize, socialize, socialize. However, be aware that many puppy training classes require certain vaccines  to be up to date, and many veterinarians recommend limited exposure to other dogs and public places until puppy vaccines  have been completed. In lieu of formal training, you can begin training your puppy at home and socializing him among family and friends until puppy vaccines are completed. These experiences as a young dog will help him grow into a sensible, calm adult dog.
  Talk to the breeder, describe exactly what you’re looking for in a dog, and ask for assistance in selecting a puppy. Breeders see the puppies daily and can make uncannily accurate recommendations once they know something about your lifestyle and personality. Whatever you want from an Alaskan Malamute, look for one whose parents have nice personalities and who has been well socialized from early puppyhood.

Health
  The Alaskan Malamute, which has an average lifespan of 10 to 12 years, occasionally suffers from gastric torsion, seizures, hemeralopia, and polyneuropathy. The major health problems that can ail the breed are canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and cataract, while minor concerns include osteochondrodysplasia (OCD) and hypothyroidism. To identify some of these issues, a veterinarian may conduct eye, hip, and thyroid exams on this breed of dog, as well as tests for osteochondrodysplasia.

Living Conditions
  Alaskan Malamutes are not recommended for apartment life. They are fairly active indoors and should have at least a large yard. If you live in a suburban area, a high fence is a must, but bury the base, because they are likely to dig their way out. The Alaskan Malamute likes to roam in what he considers to be his territory. The Malamutes coat allows them to withstand extreme cold, but be careful to keep the dogs cool in hot climates. Make sure they have shade and plenty of clean cool water.

Exercise
  Malamutes need a reasonable amount of exercise which include long daily walks. But be careful not to overdo it in warm weather.

Care
  As the dog can run for great distances, it needs adequate exercise daily, in the form of a good run or walk on a leash. The breed is fond of cold weather and loves to pull a sledge or cart through snow. It can be comfortable in cold or temperate climates, but should be kept indoors during summer. The Alaskan Malamute's coat, meanwhile, needs to be brushed weekly and even more frequently during the shedding season.

Grooming
  The Alaskan Malamute has a thick, coarse double coat. It’s not especially high maintenance — brush it a couple of times a week to remove dead hair and distribute skin oils — but it sheds year-round and more heavily on a seasonal basis.
  A Malamute owner's best friend, after his dog, is his vacuum cleaner. Twice a year Malamutes "blow coat." Picture mountains of hair drifting all over the house and attaching itself to every surface. The rest of the year their shedding is much less – so much so that you might be able to get away with vacuuming only twice a day instead of every four hours.
If you can put up with that, the Malamute is a pretty easy-care dog. Bathe him every few months or whenever he’s dirty. He doesn’t need any special trimming to maintain his distinctive look.
  The rest is basic care. Trim the nails as needed, usually once a month. Brush the teeth frequently for good overall health and fresh breath. Check the ears weekly for dirt, redness or a bad odor that can indicate an infection. If the ears look dirty, wipe them out with a cotton ball dampened with a gentle ear cleaner recommended by your veterinarian. Introduce your Malamute to grooming at an early age so he will accept it gracefully.

Is this breed right for you?
  Requiring a lot of activity, this affectionate and athletic breed requires and enjoys a lot of physical play, including hiking, swimming, sledding and more. Friendly, it does best in a family rather than being a one-to-one dog. Due to its thick coat, it is best that the Alaskan Malamute receive regular grooming and live in a cooler climate where it is provided a lot of water and shade in warmer months. Not good for apartment life, this breed needs a yard to roam, play and spend the majority of time in. Without proper training and respect for its owner, the Alaskan Malamute may become temperamental and destructive.

Children and other pets
  Malamutes are patient with children and love the attention they get from them, but fast-growing, energetic Alaskan Malamute puppies can easily overpower a young child under age 5. In their exuberance, they can knock a child over.
  Always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's sleeping or eating or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog should ever be left unsupervised with a child.
  With early socialization and training, your Malamute should get along well with other dogs. He may chase small animals such as cats unless brought up with them and taught not to. It's vital to properly introduce him to other animals in the household and supervise their interactions. He'll consider outdoor cats and other small animals fair game.

Did You Know?
  The Alaskan Malamute is perhaps the oldest and definitely the largest of the Arctic sled dogs. The breed is named after the Mahlemut, an Inuit tribe from Alaska’s Kotzebue Sound area.

A dream day-in-the-life
  The Alaskan Malamute will likely sleep outside and come in to greet its family. After a brisk walk around the yard, he will come inside and hang out with those that it loves most. After a few rubdowns and games of catch, the Alaskan Malamute would love to engage in some type of sport before the end of its day. Once it gets the brunt of its energy out, it will settle in with its favorite humans.
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Tuesday, June 17, 2014

Everything about your Pomeranian

Everything about your Pomeranian
  The Pomeranian is a cocky, animated companion with an extroverted personality. This compact little dog is an active toy breed with an alert character and fox-like expression. Today, the Pomeranian is a popular companion dog and competitive show dog. They can come in all colors, patterns, and variations although orange and red are the most popular.
   Pomeranians are little dogs with “big dog” personalities. While lively, friendly and fun, they can be slightly territorial. They grow very attached to their owners and can develop a protectiveness that makes them suspicious of strangers. This not only makes for a loyal, tried-and-true companion, it makes for a superb watchdog. Pomeranians, though small, can really deliver on the barks when a stranger approaches the house.
  Descended from large sled dog breeds, the now-tiny Pomeranian has a long and interesting history. The foxy-faced dog, nicknamed "the little dog who thinks he can," is compact, active, and capable of competing in agility and obedience or simply being a family friend.

Overview
  Pomeranians are the tiniest of the Spitz, or Nordic, breeds, but they have the courage of much bigger dogs. A perennially popular breed, the Pom weighs less than 7 pounds, but you won’t often find him in a puppy purse. That’s because Pomeranians think big. They know they have four feet and prefer to use them, just as larger dogs would.
  Everything about the Pomeranian is bright: his eyes, his temperament, and his intelligence. Though he’s very fond of his family and delighted to get some lap time, he’s also a busy little guy. You’re more likely to find him trotting around your house on an important mission than snoozing on the sofa.
  The Pom’s activity level makes him an ideal pet for someone who wants a small dog with the personality traits of the full-size sled and herding dogs from which this breed originates. Because he’s tiny, he can probably get enough exercise indoors, but he’s happiest when he gets to go on long walks, chase leaves, and play with other small dogs. He is athletic and frequently participates in dog sports such as agility, freestyle, obedience, rally, and tracking. Because of his diminutive size, he is suited to life in an apartment, but he is just as at home on a ranch or estate. However, he’s far too tiny to live outdoors. He needs to live inside with his family.
  Pomeranians have a profuse double coat that needs regular brushing but are otherwise easy to care for. And, make no mistake, Poms bark. It may not be deafening, but it can be annoying and difficult to stop, even with training. As with many small dogs, Pomeranians may be harder to housetrain.
  Ask your breeder about any behavior or health problems in dogs related to your prospective puppy. If she says there aren’t any, run. She should provide you with written documentation from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) that the parents of the puppy had normal hips, elbows, and knees, as well as from the Canine Eye Registry Foundation (CERF), certifying that they were free of vision problems.
  A Pomeranian can go to his new home at 8 to 10 weeks of age, but some breeders like to keep pups until they are 12 to 14 weeks old to make sure they are mature enough to go to their new homes and to see which ones will shake out as show prospects.

Highlights
  • Pomeranians often are suspicious of strangers and can bark a lot.
  • Pomeranians can be difficult to housetrain. Crate training is recommended.
  • High heat and humidity can cause your Pom to become overheated and possibly have heat stroke. When your Pom is outdoors, watch him carefully for signs of overheating and take him inside immediately. They definitely are housedogs and should not be kept outdoors.
  • While Poms are good with children, they are not a good choice for very young or highly active children because of their small size. Never let your small children and your Pom play without supervision.
  • Because they are so small, Poms can be perceived as prey by owls, eagles, hawks, coyotes, and other wild animals. Never leave them outside unattended, and be watchful if there are predatory birds in your location. If this is the case, stay close to your Pom to discourage birds from trying to carry them off!
  • Because they are small and attractive, Poms are targets for dognappers, another reason why you shouldn't leave them outside unattended, even in a fenced yard.
  • Although they are small, Poms don't seem to realize it and can have a "big dog" attitude. This can spell disaster if they decide to chase a bigger dog that they think is encroaching upon their territory, or if they jump from a high place. It's up to you to make sure that your little one doesn't harm himself due to not realizing his limitations.
  • When your Pom gets old, he may develop bald spots in his beautiful coat.
  • To get a healthy dog, never buy a puppy from an irresponsible breeder, puppy mill, or pet store. Look for a reputable breeder who tests her breeding dogs to make sure they're free of genetic diseases that they might pass onto the puppies, and that they have sound temperaments.
Breed standards
AKC group: Toy Dog
UKC group: Companion Dog
Average lifespan: 12 - 15 years
Average size:  4 - 6 pounds
Coat appearance: Harsh, thick, dense
Coloration: Varies
Hypoallergenic: Yes
Other identifiers: Compact, square body frame; tiny pointed ears stand erect; high-set feathered tail
Possible alterations: None
Comparable Breeds: Papillon, Yorkshire Terrier

Other Quick Facts
  • The breed became popular in 1888 after Queen Victoria fell in love with a Pom while vacationing in Italy.
  • Pomeranians have a thick, beautiful coat that comes in many colors and patterns, and they are easy to groom.
  • Pomeranians get along well with other pets but should be protected from rambunctious children.

History
  The forerunners of today's Pomeranian breed were large working dogs from the Arctic regions. These dogs are commonly known as the Wolfspitz or Spitz type, which is German for "sharp point" which was the term originally used by Count Eberhard zu Sayn in the 16th Century as a reference to the features of the dog's nose and muzzle. The Pomeranian is considered to be descended from the German Spitz.
  The breed is thought to have acquired its name by association with the area known as Pomerania which is located in northern Poland and Germany along the Baltic Sea. Although not the origin of the breed, this area is credited with the breeding which led to the original Pomeranian type of dog. Proper documentation was lacking until the breed's introduction into the United Kingdom.
  An early modern recorded reference to the Pomeranian breed is from 2 November 1764, in a diary entry in James Boswell's Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland. "The Frenchman had a Pomeranian dog named Pomer whom he was mighty fond of." The offspring of a Pomeranian and a wolf bred by an animal merchant from London is discussed in Thomas Pennant's A Tour in Scotland from 1769.
  Two members of the British Royal Family influenced the evolution of the breed. In 1767, Queen Charlotte, Queen-consort of King George III of England, brought two Pomeranians to England. Named Phoebe and Mercury, the dogs were depicted in paintings by Sir Thomas Gainsborough. These paintings depicted a dog larger than the modern breed, reportedly weighing as much as 14–23 kg, but showing modern traits such as the heavy coat, ears and a tail curled over the back.
  Queen Victoria, Queen Charlotte's granddaughter, was also an enthusiast and established a large breeding kennel. One of her favoured dogs was a comparatively small red sable Pomeranian which she named "Windor's Marco" and was reported to weigh only 5.4 kg. When she first exhibited Marco in 1891, it caused the smaller type Pomeranian to become immediately popular and breeders began selecting only the smaller specimens for breeding.   During her lifetime, the size of the Pomeranian breed was reported to have decreased by 50%. Queen Victoria worked to improve and promote the Pomeranian breed by importing smaller Pomeranians of different colors from various European countries to add to her breeding program. Royal owners during this period also included Joséphine de Beauharnais, the wife of Napoleon I of France, and King George IV of England.
  The first breed club was set up in England in 1891, and the first breed standard was written shortly afterwards. The first member of the breed was registered in America to the American Kennel Club in 1898, and it was recognized in 1900.
In 1912, two Pomeranians were among only three dogs to survive the sinking of RMS Titanic. A Pomeranian called "Lady", owned by Miss Margaret Hays, escaped with her owner in lifeboat number seven, while Elizabeth Barrett Rothschild took her pet to safety with her in lifeboat number six.
  Glen Rose Flashaway won the Toy Group at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1926, the first Pomeranian to win a group at Westminster. It would take until 1988 for the first Pomeranian, "Great Elms Prince Charming II", to win the Best in Show prize from the Westminster Kennel Club.
  In the standard published in 1998, the Pomeranian is included in the German Spitz standard, along with the Keeshond, by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. According to the standard "Spitz breeds are captivating" and have a "unique characteristic, cheeky appearance."
  The Pomeranian has been among the more popular dog breeds in the United States, featuring consistently in the top 20 of registered AKC dog breeds over the last 10 years. The breed ranked 17 in the 2011 rankings, dropping two spots from the previous year.
It is not listed in the top 20 breeds in the UK in either 2007 or 2008. In Australia their popularity has declined since 1986, with a peak of 1128 Pomeranians registered with the Australian National Kennel Council in 1987; only 577 were registered in 2008. However, this is an increase from 2004, when only 491 dogs were registered.



Personality
 The Pomeranian has a proud and glamorous appearance with a personality to match. He’s an extrovert who is clever and lively. It’s hard to appear in public with a Pom and not attract attention. The adorable little dogs with the dark, almond-shaped eyes and alert, happy expression are tiny but intrepid. They have a take-charge temperament and tend not to be fearful of strangers or other animals. For more than a century, the Pom has had a well-deserved reputation for being a great watchdog. He may weigh only a few pounds, but he views himself as absolute guardian of his home and family.
  The perfect little Pom is calm and easy to live with. He enjoys sitting in your lap and giving kisses. He is busy but doesn’t bounce off the walls. That said, Poms do like to bark. Start early and be consistent if you plan to teach him the “No bark” or “Quiet” command.
  Poms may look like toys, but they are not good pets for young children. They are too delicate to be handled roughly, and they prefer the company of adults.
  Housetraining does not always come easy to Poms. They can be stubborn about going outside to potty, especially if it’s rainy or cold outside. As a compromise, consider paper-training a Pom so that you both have options when the weather is bad.

Right Breed for You?
  Pomeranians make excellent companions for all households. Due to the size and frame of Pomeranians, it's important to watch this breed around young children to ensure they are handled properly. Owners of this energetic breed must be able to provide time for daily exercise and playtime. Their pocket-size frames make Pomeranians very suitable for apartment dwellers provided they can get their pets out for frequent walks. Potential owners should be ready to love being surrounded by luscious locks of Pomeranian fur, as this breed is very prone to shedding.

Health 
Pomeranians are prone to dislocated patella (kneecap), slipped stifle, heart problems, eye infections, skin irritations and tooth decay and early loss. It is recommended that they are fed dry dog food or crunchy Milk Bones daily to help keep the teeth and gums in good condition. Newborn Pom puppies are very tiny and fragile. Three newborns can be held in the palm of one’s hand. Dams on the smaller side often need to deliver by cesarean section. When the dog is old it may become molted with bald spots.

Care
  Pomeranians are very active indoors and are good choices for apartment dwellers and people without a fenced yard. They have a moderate activity level and will enjoy several short daily walks or play times.
   They are remarkably hearty and enjoy longer walks, but always keep in mind that they are small and sensitive to heat. They love to play and can get bored easily, so be sure to give them lots of toys and rotate them frequently so there's always something new. They especially enjoy toys that challenge them.
  One activity that both you and your Pom will enjoy is trick training. Poms love to learn new things and enjoy being the center of attention, so teaching them tricks is a perfect way to bond with them while providing them with exercise and mental stimulation.
  They have a short attention span, so keep training sessions brief and fun. Reward your Pom with praise, treats, or play whenever he correctly performs a command or does something else you like.

Grooming
  Pomeranians have what is called a double coat. The undercoat is soft and dense; the outer coat is long and straight with a course texture.
  Thanks to their small size, Pomeranians are easy to groom, even with all that coat. Brush the coat a few times a week to prevent mats or tangles. Use a medium to harsh slicker brush that will get down to the skin without hurting the dog.
  You may have heard that Poms don’t shed. Forget that. They do. Luckily, they are small enough that the amount of hair they lose is negligible. If you brush your Pom regularly, shedding shouldn’t be a big issue.
  Bathe a Pom every couple of months or more often as needed. If you use a gentle dog shampoo, you can even bathe a Pom as often as once or twice a week if you want.
  The rest is basic care. Trim the toenails every week or two. They should never get long enough to clack on the floor. Brush teeth frequently with a vet-approved pet toothpaste for good dental health and fresh breath.

Living Conditions
  The Pomeranian is good for apartment living. These dogs are very active indoors and will do okay without a yard. Be careful they do not overheat in hot weather.

Exercise
  Poms need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfill their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavior problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large, fenced-in yard.
Children and other pets
  The bold and active Pomeranian loves to play, but he's best suited to a home with older children who can be trusted to handle him carefully. Many breeders refuse to sell puppies to homes with very young children, for good reason. Sturdy though he is, the diminutive Pom is all too easily injured if he's accidentally dropped or stepped on by a clumsy child.
  Always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he's eating or to try to take the dog's food away. No dog should ever be left unsupervised with a child.
  Pomeranians can get along great with cats and other animals, especially if they're raised with them. Protect them from bigger dogs. Poms don't realize just how small they are, and they have no fear of challenging bigger dogs.

Did You Know?
  The original Pomeranians weighed 20 to 30 pounds — much larger than the Pom that we know and love today.
A dream day in the life of a Pomeranian
  The adorable Pom knows its own cuteness and demands constant pampering and attention, but one look at that face and you'll be happy to oblige. These petite partners are known for big, full and spunky hair, fit to match their equally boisterous personalities. Pampering a Pomeranian with weekly brushings and frequent trips to the groomer is a must to keep them happy. This happy-go-lucky pup loves socializing as much as she loves curling up on a warm lap, and a day of play and cuddles would make for time well spent.



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